Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network
Number 22, Fall 1998John P.
The Van Winkle
Mill and the Anderson Slave Cemetery: African-American Related
Sites in Northwest Arkansas
Jamie C. Brandon and Jerry E. Hilliard, Arkansas
As additional data come to light regarding enslaved African-Americans
pressed into service in the agricultural economy of the south,
attention should be focused on enslavement in other contexts, such
as industrial settings, lest we run the risk of stereotyping the
system of enslavement (Otto 1980). Similarly, the African-American
communities of the Ozark Mountains, both enslaved and free, remain
little studied among both historians and archaeologists, with few
exceptions (e.g., Catalfamo-Serio 1979; Doolin 1980; Otto 1980). Recent
investigations by the UAF station of the Arkansas Archeological
Survey (AAS) have the potential to add both to our knowledge of
African-American communities in the Ozarks and the conditions of
Mapping and limited testing of the Van Winkle Site (3 BE 413),
a large domestic/industrial complex located in Benton County, Arkansas,
was undertaken in response to the initial development of the Beaver
Lake State Park (Hilliard 1997). This site, situated in a steep,
narrow hollow, housed one of the largest mill operations in northwest
Arkansas from approximately 1858 to the 1940s (Hicks 1990). Additionally,
it served as the home of Peter Van Winkle (the mill's owner/operator),
his family and the large work force that operated the mill. Just
prior to the Civil War, Peter Van Winkle was known to have owned
at least 18 slaves, whose involvement in mill work is evidenced
by their continued employment after emancipation (Hicks 1990:51).
Features located during the clearing/mapping stage of the project
include the Van Winkle home, the associated spring house, the mill
site itself and at least two smaller structures (indicated by chimney
falls and depressions) interpreted as slave/worker housing. A possible
third structure appears to have been modified, perhaps for industrial
use. A sherd of flow blue earthenware recovered from subsurface
testing around the chimney falls attests to the possibility of
a relatively early occupation date.
These three small structures are situated along a narrow side-hollow
diverging from the main branch of Van Hollow and appear to be serviced
by a smaller spring. This spatial distribution seems to speak volumes
about attitudes regarding separation and social distancing of slave
quarters as well as privacy afforded African-Americans in this
context (see Stewart-Abernathy 1992 for a discussion of this phenomenon
among urban slaves in Arkansas).
Additionally, local folklore lead the authors to believe that
a "slave cemetery" was present somewhere in Van Hollow.
Two sets of upright, unmarked field stones were reported by a local
informant. These stones, situated on a ridge near the small domestic
structures, were identified by Park Ranger Mark Clippinger and
AAS personnel as possible grave locations. Non-invasive testing
is being considered to verify the existence of this cemetery.
Another African-American related site investigated by the AAS
in Benton County is the "Anderson Slave Cemetery" (3
BE 625). After local informants (including the Benton County Cemetery
Preservation Group) reported that a cemetery might be present on
land newly acquired by the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport
Authority (NWARA), the NWARA requested that the AAS investigate
the area (Hilliard 1998).
Following informant leads, various locations within the thirty-acre
pasture were investigated via mechanical stripping. In spite of
difficult soil conditions (large pockets of chert deposits), blade
cuts were sufficient to discern soil anomalies.
Three features interpreted as infant or sub-adult grave pits were
explored by a combination of mechanical stripping and hand-excavated
units. These features were located on a small knoll at the back
corner of the former Anderson family farm near an intermittent
creek. The upland soils of the Ozarks are notoriously acidic, and
no artifacts or human remains were recovered even though fill was
collected and processed through a flotation system. Soil analysis
conducted on fill from two of the features seems to support the
grave-shaft interpretation through high phosphorus contents relative to
the native matrix (Hilliard 1998:14). This higher phosphorous
content may be the result of bone decomposition, but interpretations
of grave-fill via chemical signatures remain somewhat inconclusive
in archaeological literature (e.g., Bethell 1989; Solecki 1951).
No further excavations were conducted, as the project goal of identifying
the specific location of the cemetery for avoidance had been achieved.
Identification of various antebellum features, including the specific
location of the slave cemetery, provides spatial data for the reconstruction
of the landscape of the Anderson antebellum farm. The slave dwellings
and burying ground were located south of a road and in a relatively
lower topographic setting than the white family home and cemetery.
The slave cemetery is located approximately 400 meters south of
the Anderson family cemetery on a cornerof the property that is
subject to flooding. Extensive historical accounts and archival
data are currently being compiled by the authors in order to place
this antebellum landscape in context and provide clues concerning the
lives of the enslaved African-Americans associated with the Anderson family.
1989 Chemical analysis of shadow burials. In Burial Archaeology:
Current Research, Methods and Developments, Charlotte A. Roberts,
Frances Leeand John Bintliff, editors. BAR British Series 211.
1979 Slavery in Northwest Arkansas. In The Effect of the Civil
War on Ozark Culture. Joe Cavanaugh, editor. Arkansas Endowment
for the Humanities, Little Rock.
1980 Conditions of Slavery in Washington County. Flashback
30(1). Washington County Historical Society.
Hicks, Marilyn Larner
1990 The Van Winkle Family: Peter Marsells Van Winkle 1814-1882. Privately
1997 A brief look at one of Northwest Arkansas's largest sawmills:
the Van Winkle site 3BE413. Field Notes 279 p. 10-12.
1998 Historical and Archaeological Account of the Anderson
Slave Cemetery (3BE625), Benton County, Arkansas. Report submitted
to the NWARA. Arkansas Archaeological Survey.
Otto, John Solomon
1980 Slavery in the Mountains: Yell County, Arkansas, 1840-1860.
Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39(1).
Solecki, R. S.
1951 Notes on soil analysis and archaeology. American Antiquity
Stewart-Abernathy, Leslie C.
1992 Separate kitchen and intimate archeology: constructing
urban slavery on the antebellum cotton frontier in Washington,
Arkansas. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society
for American Archaeology, Pittsburgh.
Notes From the Editor: Renewals
I have several items of business to bring to your attention.
A-AA will become a quarterly with the new year, the supply of content
permitting. Your subscription renewals
for 1999 are due in January!
The editorial staff has been expanded.
I want to welcome Dr. Paul Mullins as Assistant Editor. Paul will
help round-up material and will assist with production scut work.
To enhance the Book Review/Notes section, Dr. James Garmond has
come on as Book Review Editor. Finally, Ms. Carol McDavid will
serve as editor of a new semi-annual column: Progression: Advances
in African American Archaeology. More information about Progression can
be found on page 7.
A-AA now has a new organizational home. The Council for Maryland
Archaeology has agreed to be the fiscal agent for A-AA, so I am
now able to establish a local checking account. I have been holding
a number of checks pending completion of such an arrangement, so
be warned -- if one of these is yours, it will be deposited shortly!
An African-American Historical Bibliography: Primary
Editor's Note: from a bibliography complied by the New York
State Library, January 1992
Abajian, James, comp.
1977 Blacks in Selected Newspapers, Censuses and other Sources:
an Index to Names and Subjects. 3 vols. Boston: G.K. Hall.
1839 African Captives: Trial of the Prisoners of the Amistad
on the Writof Habeus Corpus, before the Circuit Court of the United
States, for the District of Connecticut, at Hartford; Judges
Thompson and Judson, September Term, 1839. n.p.
Aptheker, Herbert, ed.
1951 A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United
States. Preface by W.E.B. Du Bois. New York: Citadel Press.
Austin, Allan, ed.
1984 African Muslims in Antebellum America: a Sourcebook.
New York: Garland Pub.
Barker, Lucius Jefferson
1988 Our Time Has Come: a Delegate's Diary of Jesse Jackson's
1984 Presidential Campaign. Urbana: University of Illinois
Bell, Howard Holman
1969 Minutes of the Proceedings of National Negro Conventions,
1830-1864. New York: Arno Press.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr.
1979 Wade in the Water: Great Moments in Black History.
Chicago: Johnson Pub. Co.
Bergman, Peter M. and Jean McCarroll, comps.
1969 Negro in the Congressional Record, 1789-1801. New
Berlin, Ira, et al, eds.
1985 Freedom, a Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867,
vol. 1. The Destruction of Slavery. New York: Cambridge University
1982 Freedom, a Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867,
vol. 2. The Black Military Experience. New York: Cambridge
Black Culture Collection, from the Holdings of Atlanta
University Library. Wooster, OH: Bell & Howell, Micro Photo
Division, 1971-1973. (Microform collection containing approximately
10,000 books, pamphlets, portraits, letters by and about African
Americans, mostly items collected by Henry P. Slaughter between
1900 and 1940.)
The Black Panther Leaders Speak: Huey P. Newton, Bobby
Seale, Eldridge Cleaver and Company Speak Out through the Black
Panther Party's Official Newspaper. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press,
1966 Negro Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920; Representative Texts.
New York: Basic Books.
Bureau of National Affairs
1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964: Text, Analysis, Legislative
History; What It Means to Employers, Businessmen, Unions, Employees,
Minority Groups. Washington, DC.
1971 Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan-Africanism.
New York: Random House.
Chester, Thomas Morris
1989 Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent:
His Dispatches from the Virginia Front. Edited by R.J.M. Blackett.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
Clark, Kenneth B.
1963 Negro Protest: James Baldwin, Malcolm X, Martin Luther
King talk with Kenneth B. Clark. Boston: Beacon Press.
1969 Eldridge Cleaver: Post-Prison Writings and Speeches.
New York: Random House.
Commager, Henry Steele
1967 Struggle for Racial Equality: a Documentary Record.
New York: Harper & Row.
1974 Angela Davis Case Collection, Meiklejohn Civil
Liberties Institute, Berkeley, California. Edited by Ann Fagan
Ginger. 13 microfilm reels. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Trans-Media Publishing
1971 If They Come in the Morning; Voices of Resistance.
Foreword by Julian Bond. A Joseph Okpaku Book. New York: Third
1979 The Frederick Douglass Papers. New Haven: Yale
Du Bois, W.E.B.
1988 Writings. Edited by Nathan Huggins. Library of
America. New York: Literary Classics of America.
Eaklor, Vicki Lynn
1988 American Antislavery Songs: a Collection and Analysis.
New York: Greenwood Press
Eicholz, Alice and James M. Rose, comps.
1981 Free Black Heads of Household in the New York State
Federal Census, 1790-1830. Gale Genealogy and Local History
Series, vol. 14. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co.
Elliot, Jeffrey M
1986 Black Voices in American Politics. San Diego: Harcourt
Foner, Philip S
1972 Voice of Black America: the Major Speeches by Negroes
in the United States, 1797-1971. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Foner, Philip S. , and George E. Walker, eds.
1979-80 Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1840-1865. Philadelphia:
Temple University Press.
1986 Proceedings of the Black National and State Conventions,
1865-1900. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
1972 Making of Black Revolutionaries; a Personal Account.
New York: Macmillan.
Forten, Charlotte L.
1988 The Journals of Charlotte Forten Grimke. Edited
by Brenda Stevenson. New York: Oxford University Press.
Franklin, John Hope
1967 Negro in Twentieth Century America: a Reader on the
Struggle for Civil Rights. New York: Vintage Books.
Gunther, Lenworth, ed.
1978 Black Image: European Eyewitness Accounts of Afro-American
Life. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press.
Jacques-Garvey, Amy, ed.
1969 Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. 2 vols.
New Prefaceby Hollis R. Lynch. Studies in American Negro Life,
NL 14. New York: Atheneum.
1973 Juror Number Four: the Trial of Thirteen Black Panthers
As Seen from the Jury Box. New York: Norton.
Katz, William Loren, comp.
1974 Eyewitness: the Negro in American History. New
York: Pitman Pub. Corp.
King, Martin Luther
1958 Stride Toward Freedom: the Montgomery Story. New
1986 A Testament of Hope: the Essential Writings of Martin
Luther King, Jr. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Boston: William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp. 35 vols.
1863 Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. September
1989 Speeches and Writings. 2 vols. Selected and annotated
by Don E. Fehrenbacher. The Library of America, vols. 45 and 46.
New York: Literary Classics of the United States.
Little, Malcolm. See X, Malcolm
Loyal Publication Society
1863 Opinions of the Early Presidents and of the Fathers
of the Republic upon Slavery and upon Negroes as Men and Soldiers.
Pamphlets, Loyal Publication Society, vol. 18. New York: C.
Bryant & Co., Printers.
The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association
Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
McFarlin, Annjenette Sophie, comp.
1976 Black Congressional Reconstruction Orators and Their
Orations, 1869-1879. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Mohonk Conference on the Negro Question. Proceedings. Boston:
The Conference, 1890-91.
Moore, Richard B.
1988 Richard B. Moore, Caribbean Militant in Harlem: Collected
Writings, 1920-1972. Edited by W. Burghardt Turner and Joyce
Moore Turner, with a biography by Joyce Moore Turner. Introduction
by Franklin W. Knight. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Motley, Mary Penwick, comp.
1975 The Invisible Soldier: the Experience of the Black
Soldier, World War II. Foreword by Howard Donovan Queen. Detroit:
Wayne State University Press.
Mullin, Michael, ed.
1976 American Negro Slavery: a Documentary History.
Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
1981 Papers of the NAACP. Editorial Advisor, August
Meier. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.
1970 Blackthink: My Life as Black Man and White Man.
New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Owens, Jesse and Paul Neimark.
1972 I Have Changed. New York: William Morrow &
1827 An Address, Delivered on the Celebration of the Abolition
of Slavery, in the State of New York, July 5, 1827, by Nathaniel
Paul, Pastor of the First African Baptist Society in the City of
Albany. Albany,NY: Printed by John B. Van Steenbergh.
Ripley, C. Peter, ed., Jeffrey S. Rossbach, associate ed.,
1985 The Black Abolitionist Papers. Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press.
1978 Paul Robeson Speaks: Writings, Speeches, Interviews,
1918-1974. Edited with an introduction and notes by Philip
S. Foner. Larchmont, NY: Brunner-Mazel.
1986 Tombee: Portrait of a Cotton Planter; with the Journal
of Thomas B. Chaplin. Edited and annotated with the assistance
of Susan W. Walker. New York: Morrow.
1971 Down the Line: the Collected Writings. Chicago:
Slavery: Source Material Selected from a Bibliography of
Anti-Slavery in America. Microfiche. Louisville, KY: Lost Cause
Slavery: Source Material Selected from Items Entered under
the Subject Group "Slavery" in the Catalog of the Library
of Congress. Microfiche. Louisville, KY: Lost Cause Press, 1972.
Smith, Billy G. and Richard Wojtowicz, comps.
1989 Blacks Who Stole Themselves: Advertisements for Runaways
in the Pennsylvania Gazette 1728-1790. Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press.
Sterling, Dorothy, ed.
1973 Speak Out in Thunder Tones: Letters and Other Writings
by Black Northerners, 1787-1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
1976 The Trouble They Seen: Black People Tell the Story of
Reconstruction. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Stewart, Maria W.
1987 Maria W. Stewart, America's First Black Woman Political
Writer: Essays and Speeches. Bloomington: Indiana University
Sweet, Leonard I.
1976 Black Images of America, 1784-1870. New York: Norton.
Taylor, Clara, comp.
1974 British and American Abolitionists: an Episode in Translatlantic Understanding.
Taylor, Clyde, comp.
1973 Vietnam and Black America: an Anthology of Protest
and Resistance. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.
Taylor, Susis King
1988 A Black Woman's Civil War Memoirs: Reminiscences of
My Life in Camp with the 33rd U.S. Colored Trops, Late 1st South
Carolina Volunteers.Edited by Patricia W. Romero. New York:
M. Wiener Pub.
Turner, Henry McNeal
1971 I. Compiled and edited by Edwin S. Redkey. New
York: Arno Press.
United States Congress, House of Representatives. Civil
Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, 1964, 1968; Voting Rights Act of 1965;
Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1970. Washington, DC: Government
Printing Office, 1970.
United States. Supreme Court. The Case of Dred Scott in
the United States Supreme Court: the Full Opinions of Chief Justice
Taney and Justice Curtis, and Abstracts of the Opinions of the
Other Judges; with an Analysis of the Points Ruled, and Some Concluding
Observations. New York: Horace Greeley and Co., 1857.
Vincent, Theodore G., ed.
1973 Voices of a Black Nation; Political Journalism in the
Harlem Renaissance. Foreword by Robert Chrisman. San Francisco:
Washington, Booker T.
1972-1989 The Booker T. Washington Papers. 14 vols.
Edited by LouisR. Harlan. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
1977 Talking It Over With Roy Wilkins: Selected Speeches
and Writings. Compiled by Helen Solomon and Aminda Wilkins.
Norwalk, CT: M & B Pub. Co.
Woodson, Carter Godwin, ed.
1924 Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in
1830, Together with Absentee Ownership of Slaves in the United
States in 1830. Washington, DC: The Association for the Study
of Negro Life and History.
1926 Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written during
the Crisis. Washington, DC: The Association for the Study of
Negro Life and History.
1965 Malcolm X Speaks; Selected Speeches and Statements.
Edited by George Breitman. New York: Merit Publishers.
1968 The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Edited with
an introductory essay by Archie Epps. New York: W. Morrow.
1970 By Any Means Necessary; Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter. Edited
by George Breitman. New York: Pathfinder Press.
The Oldest Cemetery in Dallas
Rediscovered: The Lost Location of Dallas's Slave Burials
James M. Davidson, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville
The earliest cemetery established in Dallas, Texas, had lain buried,
lost,and forgotten for nearly a hundred years. Now, from a clue
found while researching the origin of Freedman's Cemetery (the
historic African-American cemetery that was the focus of intensive
archaeological investigations in recent years), this lost cemetery,
the Old Dallas Burial Ground, has been rediscovered. The information
recovered regarding this cemetery's origin and demography has provided
significant insight into life in antebellum Dallas.
Dallas's oldest cemetery is located a mere four blocks north of
two famous landmarks in Dallas history -- the Texas School Book
Depository and Dealey Plaza -- and some two miles to the south of
Freedman's Cemetery. While the village of Dallas itself was founded
in 1841 by John Neely Bryan, the precise founding date of the old
Dallas Burial Ground remains unknown. From our current understanding,
however, it is likely that it was formed in the early 1840s in
an impromptu manner, and only when the first death to visit the village
of Dallas dictated its necessity. Importantly, and not atypical for
the antebellum South, the Old Dallas Burial Ground marked the
final resting place of both "anglo" settlers and enslaved
African Americans, making it a true communal graveyard. From the
archival record, it would seem that Dallas's first cemetery was
closed to further interments sometime around 1869, the very year
that Freedman's Cemetery was founded.
Prior to the discovery of the Old Dallas Burial Ground, it had
been widely believed that Freedman's Cemetery actually contained
the remains of both freedmen and slaves, and that Freedman's Cemetery
could ultimately trace its origin to a slave cemetery. The discovery
of this earlier burial ground will thus alter many basic assumptions
regarding the origin and history of the early community of Freedman's
Town, of which Freedman's Cemetery was but one part.
Ironically, like Freedman's Cemetery, an acre of which was paved
over by highway construction in the 1940s, the Old Dallas Burial
Ground suffered a similar fate. It was first impacted by the physical
plant of the Dallas Brewery during its expansion at the turn-of-the-century,
and was finally paved over by the creation of Woodall Rogers Freeway
in the 1970s.
There is indirect archival evidence suggesting that most, if not
all, of the graves of whites were moved from the Old Dallas Burial
Ground in the early 1870s to the newly formed City Cemetery. No
archival evidence, however, has been found regarding the fate of
the remains of the enslaved African Americans. Freedman's Cemetery
was formed in 1869 specifically to supersede the Old Dallas Burial
Ground's role, and so it would have been the logical (and indeed
the only) place available for such re-interments. Although the earliest
portion of the Freedman's Cemetery was completely cleared of graves during
the highway department's archaeological investigation, no cases
of graves containing the disturbed remains of secondary burials
were recovered. With the complete lack of secondary burials at
Freedman's Cemetery, and nothing in the archival record to suggest
their removal, it seems highly likely that the remains of Dallas's
slaves and early freedmen still lie within the Old Dallas Burial
The presence or extent of subsurface impacts that may have occurred
to the graves, due either to the turn-of-the-century brewery expansion
or the construction of Woodall Rogers Freeway, is unknown. In the
vicinity of the Old Burial Ground, Woodall Rogers Freeway consists
of an elevated roadway, and so the cemetery is not capped off with
roadbed materials in any conventional sense. Accordingly, archaeological
investigation could potentially reveal any surviving graves, which
could then be removed to a nearby cemetery.
Note: A full length article on the Old Dallas Burial Ground will
be published in the October 1998 issue of the Southwestern Historical
Some Thoughts on African-American Foodways
Elizabeth M. Scott, Zooarch Research, St. Mary, Missouri
A few years ago I had the opportunity to analyze the animal remains
from Nina Plantation (16PC62), a c. 1820s-1890s sugar plantation
in central Louisiana on the banks of the Mississippi River. Excavated
in 1993 and 1994 by R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates on
behalf of the US Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District,
the project included investigation of the Main House and two structures
in an Outbuilding Complex associated with African Americans, although
the slave quarters proper were not excavated (since that area
was not in danger of destruction by the Mississippi River). The
site has the advantage of an 1851 alluvial flood deposit that serves
to distinguish antebellum and postbellum occupations in both areas
of the site. This coincides as well with a change in ownership
of the plantation in 1857, from a French Creole family to an Anglo-American
family from Philadelphia (Markell 1996). Thus, it was possible
to analyze differences in French, Anglo-American, and African American
diets; differences in pre-Emancipation and post-Emancipation African
American diets; and whether the differences could be attributed to
ethnicity, economic position, or both. This analysis brought several things
to mind that seem to have relevance for understanding the variability of
African American foodways in a plantation setting, and which I
would like to discuss here.
The Outbuilding Complex at Nina Plantation appears, from the material
culture, to have been where African Americans resided, first as
slaves and later as tenants (Markell 1996). One of the Outbuildings,
Structure 1, probably served as a residence for enslaved African
American and tenants as well as a kitchen for the Main House residents.
The function of the second Outbuilding, Structure 2, is somewhat
less clear, although butchering and food preparation occurred there
as well. Deer, raccoons, rabbits, turkey, doves and pigeons, alligator,
and suckers were consumed only in the Outbuildings. The residents ate
some species that also were consumed at the Main House, including
cow, pig, chicken, squirrel, ducks and geese, and turtles. Some
species, such as opossum, occur in small amounts at the Main House,
but in larger amounts in the Outbuilding area. This is especially
true of fish; although catfishes, gar, bowfin, drum, and sunfishes
occur at the Main House, they played a much greater role in the
diet at the Outbuilding area. Comparison of earlier French period
(c. 1820-1851) with later Anglo period (1851-1890s) diets at the
Outbuilding area indicates an increase in domestic species and
a marked decrease in the use of wild mammals, birds, and fish in
the later period. A similar pattern is seen at the later Anglo
The evidence from Nina Plantation brings to mind discussions about
differences in the ways enslaved African American and tenants obtained
their subsistence. Because assemblages associated with the later
tenant period Outbuildings at Nina seem much more like those associated
with the Anglo Main House in their increased use of beef and sharp
reduction in wild animals, one might be tempted to assume that
the plantation owners, the Allens, were controlling what meat provisions
were even available to African-American tenants. In other words,
the shift in the African American diet at Nina in the same direction
as the new owners' shift might be taken to suggest greater owner control
of meat sources during the Anglo period.
However, what the faunal data might be revealing is an effect
on men's and women's time. If the plantation owner no longer provided
food rations (as he/she might have done in the antebellum period),
then a tenant family would have to spend more time (outside of
work on the sugar plantation) growing its own crops and otherwise
getting food for subsistence. Less time would be available for
both hunting and agriculture, such that a choice might have been
made for investing time in gardens near the house rather than in
procuring wild animals further a field. It might have made more
sense for the tenants to have purchased were available from the
plantation owner or from nearby stores, even if this meant a change
It is also possible that African-American tenants wanted to change
their diets, i.e., preferred the same foods as the Anglo owners,
or wanted to demonstrate their ability to purchase a similar array
of foods. This could be read both as "buying into" the
ideology of the dominant classas well as "in your face"
resistance to the dominant class by co-opting one of the signs
of that class its food choices. At Nina Plantation, with the shift
from slave to tenant status, the African-American diet changed from
one dominated by pork and wild species to one dominated by beef
and virtually devoid of wild species.
I think it is difficult to determine whether the meat diet we
see revealed in the slave and tenant households on plantations
truly reflects African or African-American food preferences or
whether it reflects slave and tenant choices from a limited range
of available options. Certainly some culinary practices, such as
reliance on stews and "one-dish" meals, and the use of
certain plant foods, such as okra and cow peas, can be traced to
Africa (Ferguson 1992; Wagner 1981; Hall 1991). However, pigs'
feet, stereotypically an African-American food preference, occurred
in higher proportions in the French and Anglo Main Houses at Nina
than in the slave and tenant Outbuildings; in the case of the earlier
French period, the percentage was much higher at the Main House.
During the later tenant period, there was a marked decrease in
consumption of pork in the Outbuildings and a corresponding increase
in consumption of beef. High and medium food value cuts of beef increased
and the less meaty cuts decreased, suggesting that African-American tenants
at Nina were better off economically, and perhaps physically,
than their enslaved predecessors had been.
In addition to the change in work and "free" time that
is part and parcel of the shift from slavery to tenancy, there
are the very real differences between French and Anglo-American
systems of slavery to consider. One article of the French Code
Noir (Black Code) forbade owners to workslaves on Sundays and
holidays, leaving this time available for enslaved men and women
to engage in their own pursuits which might include, among many
other things, hunting and fishing as well as bartering and selling goods
and services (Ekberg 1985:215). We know relatively little about
North American French plantations archaeologically, to know how
this might be revealed materially; however, the subject has been
examined by historians for the middle Mississippi valley (Ekberg
1985) and the Louisiana colony in general (Usner 1987). The much
greater consumption of wild mammals and fish by enslaved African
Americans at Nina during the period French Creoles owned the plantation
suggests access to and time for acquisition of those resources
in a way that is consistent with the Code Noir.
Another factor to consider is the economic base of the plantation
under study, which is related to its environmental setting. One
would expect quite a lot of variation in food consumption between
those who lived on coastal rice, indigo, and sea cotton plantations,
upland tobacco, cotton, hemp, and wheat plantations, and sugar
plantations; between those who lived onthe banks of large rivers
and oceans and those who had only creeks or ponds nearby; between
those who lived near heavily forested areas and those nea open
grassland or prairie. When we combine the different kinds of labor that
were required of enslaved men and women for different plantation
economies with the variation in nearby plant and animal resources,
it is clear that comparisons and generalizations about African
American subsistence on plantations can be neither easy nor facile.
Temporal and technological changes alsomust be brought into the
picture. For example, late nineteenth-century changes in meat processing
and in shipping meant more people had greater access to domesticated
meats than before, especially if they lived along majorwaterways.
All of these factors (the ethnicity of owners, overseers, slaves,
and tenants); economic position; economic base of plantation; environmental
setting; temporal/technological context) need to be taken into
consideration when looking at similarities and differences in African-American
foodways on plantations. (Even more variability would be expected,
of course, when African-American contexts in non-plantation settings
[enslaved and free] are examined.) The foods people ate reflect
access to, choices about, and preferences for, particular resources
and can tell us much about the role of subsistence in planter-slave and
planter-tenant relations on plantations. To even begin to understand this,
we need faunal and botanical data from many more kinds of plantations in
various environmental settings dating to several different periods.
Hopefully, research in the not-too-distant future will include
increased attention to topics such as these.
Ekberg, Carl J.
1985 Colonial Ste. Genevieve: An Adventure on the Mississippi Frontier.
The Patrice Press, Gerald, Missouri.
Ferguson, Leland G.
1992 Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Hall, Robert L.
1991 Savoring Africa in the New World. In Seeds of Change: Five
Hundred Years Since Columbus, edited by Herman Viola and Carolyn
Margolis, pp. 160-185. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,
1996 Patterns of Change in Plantation Life in Pointe Coupee Parish,
Louisiana: The Americanization of Nina Plantation, 1820-1890. Draft
report submitted to the US Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans
District. R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc., New Orleans.
Usner, Daniel H., Jr.
1987 The Frontier Exchange Economy of the Lower Mississippi Valley
in the Eighteenth Century. William and Mary Quarterly XLIV:2:165-192.
1981 The Introduction and Early Use of African Plants in the New
World. Tennessee Anthropologist 6(2):112-123.
Announcing Progression: Advances
in African-American Archaeology
Carol McDavid, Cambridge University
A-AA has been in existence for some years now, and those of you
who have been long-term subscribers have seen it through a number
of changes in editor, content, style, and appearance. In many way
these changes have been in response to changes in the content and
social context of our field as it has matured. Another change is
in the works, which we hope will help the newsletter to be even
better tool for researchers. Starting with the Spring 1999 issue we
will begin a regular column, under my editorship, entitled Progression: Advances
in African American Archaeology.
This semi-annual column will attempt to map the changing theoretical,
methodological, social, and political terrain that researchers
in this field must navigate. As column editor, I hope to receive
contributions drawn from ongoing research-particularly research
that is attempting to establish new directions in this area of
inquiry. These new directions can be "purely" archaeological, or
have to do with issues more social and political than technical.
Reportson significant community work will be as welcome in this
forum as reports which detail theoretical and methodological challenges.
I will also occasionally solicit pieces, so suggestions about work
that would be of interest to subscribers will also be appreciated.
The content of the column will include both information and commentary,
and will, I hope, include as much of both from our subscribers as
My address can be found below, please drop me a note with your
ideas or proposals!
Slaves as Entrepreneurs
On Tuesday, October 13, 1998, The Washington Post (Page B03)
carried an article reporting the work of College of William and
Mary archaeologist Tom Higgins at the slave quarters of Wilton
plantation. The excavations indicated that "enslaved Africans
partially supported their families with their own gardens and livestock
and that they hunted for game and fished the river. They became
part of entrepreneurial America, bartering or buying dishes, beads
and children's toys."
We hope to have more information about this project in a future
Investigating Indiana's 19th-Century
Agricultural Heritage: African-American and Quaker Farmers in
Deborah L. Rotman, Archaeological Resources Management Service,
Ball State University
Editor's Note: This paper discusses the results of research first
briefly reported in A-AA No. 20.
African-Americans have played an important role in east central
Indiana's long agricultural heritage. As a free state, Indiana
was a frequent destination for African-Americans and Quakers migrating
from the south, particularly from North Carolina and Virginia (Lyda
1953:18). Many of these individuals came to Randolph County and
formed three distinct agricultural communities -- Greenville, Cabin
Creek, and Snow Hill (Tucker 1882:133-134).
These settlements were recently the focus of archaeological and
historical investigations. The project included extensive documentary
research and interviews with descendants of early pioneers. A reconnaissance
level survey of nearly 1,000 acres was also conducted 72 percent
of which was owned by African-Americans and 28 percent by Quakers
and other white farmers. Fourteen historic sites associated with
African Americans were identified, each with a mean ceramic date
(MCD) before 1850. The goals for this research included: understanding
early agricultural practices in the region, examining economic stratification
within and between cultural groups, and determining if an archaeological
correlate for ethnicity existed. This paper briefly outlines the
Early African-American and Quaker pioneers had familial, cultural,
and economic ties to one another, both in their home states and
after resettling in Indiana (Cord 1993:107-108). Members of both
groups assisted fugitive slaves on their way north as well as provided
support to those who chose to remain in Randolph County. The Underground
Railroad brought new members into the communities and offered opportunities
for individuals and families to relocate to northern Indiana, Michigan,
and Canada (Funk 1964:9). The number of African-American residents
in Randolph County increased from five in 1820 to 825 in 1850 (Thornbrough
1993:45). Greenville appeared to have been the largest and most
dynamic of these settlements. At its peak, ithad 800-900 members
(Tucker 1882:133). This community was also the home to the Union
Literary Institute (ULI), founded in 1845 by a board comprised of
both African-Americans and white Quakers. This manual boarding
school became the first integrated, coeducational institution in
the area (Dye 1981).
Despite being a free state, four-fifths of Indiana's population
was in sympathy with slavery prior to mid-century (Cockrum 1969:12).
By 1831, African Americans were required by law to give bond as
guarantee of good behavior and against their becoming public charges
(Thornbrough 1993:31). As the Civil War drew nearer, African Americans
were increasingly unwelcome in Indiana. The Fugitive Slave Law
of 1850 mandated the capture and return of fugitives who had fled to
free states (Thornbrough 1993:32). In 1854, the Indiana Constitutional Convention
adopted a provision which prohibited African Americans from becoming residents
of the state (Litweck 1961:70).
In addition to these social and political changes, agricultural
production in Indiana and elsewhere was undergoing a transformation.
Prior to circa 1855, and depending on location, many farm households
were virtually self-sufficient family units. However, after mid-century,
the size of land holdings increased and farmers began to focus
on one or two primary crops rather than tending to a broad spectrum
of livestock and agricultural pursuits (McMurry 1988:54). Poor
farmers were often unable to meet the increased capital requirements of
this new system and were, therefore, at a greater competitive
disadvantage. Many abandoned farming and sought employment in urbanized
areas (Tucker 1882:133).
Randolph County communities grew and expanded from the first wave
of migration after statehood (1816) until the Civil War, but by
the turn of the 20th century, the African-American and Quaker settlements
in Randolph County had virtually disappeared (Thornbrough 1993:177).
The transformation of the agricultural system in east central Indiana
coincided with deteriorating race relations as the Civil War approached.
The migration of black farmers out of the settlements in Randolph
County may have been motivated by decreased economic opportunities
in farming or marginalized social position as a result of the changing
political climate . . . or perhaps both (Leavell 1997; Robbins 1997).
Settlement and Agriculture
Although merchants, shoemakers, and blacksmiths were operating
within these communities, agriculture was the primary focus. Few
specific references to material possessions and farming practices
in Randolph County were found. However, a study of a rural African-American
community in St. Joseph County, whose inhabitants also originated
from North Carolina and Virginia, indicated that "life was
apparently typical for the pioneer period in Indiana"(Karst
1978:261). Threshing, butchering, and other farm tasks were shared with
neighbors, many of whom were white. Farming included the cultivation of
general crops and the raising of livestock. There is no evidence
to suggest that life in the Randolph County settlements deviated
from this pattern.
All but three of the sites investigated contained agricultural-related
artifacts (i.e., tools, plow parts, etc.), although the relative
percentage of these items was low. The absence of large numbers
of agricultural artifacts substantiated that farm tools were highly
valued, curated, and re-used (Smith and Driver 1914:786). According
to the 1850 census, there were three blacksmiths residing in the
Cabin Creek settlement. These individuals would have been instrumental in
refurbishing and repairing important metal components of agricultural implements.
As a result, these items would have entered the archaeological record
in limited quantities. Additionally, the wooden pieces of hoes,
axes, harrows, and plows would not have been preserved archaeologically.
These early agricultural communities were stratified economically.
However, stratification appears to cross ethnic, social, and religious
boundaries.A wide range of farm values and sizes were noted in
the 1850 agricultural census (Reel 3895) for African Americans
and for Quakers and other white settlers (Table 1). The archaeological
evidence also illustrated economic variation. Some assemblages
contained only a few undecorated earthenwares and utilitarian stonewares,
while others were dominated by transfer-printed and other decorated
whitewares. Consequently, all points on the economic spectrum appeared
to have been occupied by individuals from multiple social categories.
| Table 1: Summary of Sample Data from the 1850 Agricultural Census,Randolph County, Indiana. |
| Acres of Land|
| Mean|| 82.9|| 101.2|
| Median|| 80|| 102|
| Range|| 0-320|| 0-250|
| Value of Farms ($)|
| Mean|| 933|| 1,179|
| Median|| 700|| 1,000|
| Range|| 0-4,000|| 0-3,000|
Overall, however, the Quakers and other white farmers fared better
than their African-American neighbors, particularly during the
shift to commercial agriculture after mid-century. White farmers
generally occupied their farms longer and retained possession of
them later into the 19th century. Only half (N=7) of the properties
owned by African Americans were occupied longer than 20 years,
compared to 80 percent (N=4) of farms owned by whites. Additionally,in
the decade following the transformation of the agricultural system
(ca. 1855-1865), only 33 percent (N=1) of white farmers had sold
their property, while 55 percent (N=5) of land held by African
Americans was sold during the same time period.
Archaeological Correlates of Ethnicity
The sites surveyed were associated with landowners from a range
of ethnic, social, and religious backgrounds, yet the artifacts
recovered were quite similar. Another study, which compared African
American and Euroamerican farmsteads from the early 20th century,
also did not indicate any significant differences in material culture
attributed to ethnicity (Stine 1990:48). Within Indiana, rural
African-American settlements in St. Joseph County during the 19th
century were much like white rural communities of the same time
period (Karst 1978:267).
The only discernible differences in the archaeological assemblages
appeared to be along economic, not racial lines. Material culture
may not have played a primary role in asserting social boundaries
on the frontier in Indiana during the first half of the 19th century.
As was suggested by Stine (1990:49) character attributes, such
as being "crooked," slovenly or lazy, may have been more
important than class, occupation or race. Consequently, no clear
archaeological correlate of ethnicity was discerned for sites
within the project area.
The documentary research, oral interviews, and reconnaissance
level survey conducted during this project are only the first step
to understanding dynamic African-American and Quaker communities
in Randolph County. However, the data collected provides an important
foundation upon which to base future historical and archaeological
research of pioneer settlement, farming practices, and social interaction
within African-American communities in Indiana and the Midwest.
Note: If interested in ordering a copy of the research report
for this project, please contact the author at email@example.com
My sincerest thanks to my research team: Rachel Mancini, Aaron
Smith, and Elizabeth Campbell. This project was funded by Ball
State University and through a Department of Interior grant administered
by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic
Preservation and Archaeology.
Cockrum, William M.
1969 The History of the Underground Railroad. Negro Universities
Press, New York.
1993 Black Rural Settlements in Indiana Before 1860. In Indiana's
African-American Heritage: Essays from Black History News &
Notes, edited by W. L. Gibbs,pp. 99-110. Indiana Historical Society,
1981 Story of the Old School. The Muncie Star, Section B:1, August
Funk, Arville L.
1964 Railroad to Freedom. Outdoor Indiana 8 (5):5-10.
Karst, Frederick a.
1978 A Rural Black Settlement in St. Joseph County, Indiana before
1900. Indiana Magazine of History 74:252-267.
1997 Telephone conversation with Elizabeth Campbell, 9 November.
Litweck, Leon F.
1961 North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lyda, John W.
1953 The Negro in the History of Indiana. Hathoway Printery, Coatesville, Indiana.
1988 Families and Farmhouses in Nineteenth-Century America: Vernacular
Design and Social Change. Oxford University Press, New York.
1997 Telephone conversation with Elizabeth Campbell, 13 October.
Smith, John L., and Lee L. Driver
1914 Past and Present in Randolph County, Indiana. A. W. Bowen
& Company, Indianapolis.
Stafford, James and Barbara Stafford
1997 Interview with Elizabeth Campbell, New Paris, Ohio, 18 July.
1990 Social Identity and Turn-of-the-Century Farmsteads: Issues
of Class, Status, Ethnicity, and Race. Historical Archaeology 24(4):37-49.
Lest We Forget: The Passage from Africa to Slavery and Emancipation
Velma Maia Thomas, Crown Publishers Inc., New York, 1997.
Ed Hood, Old Sturbridge Village
In Lest We Forget: The Passage from Africa to Slavery and Emancipation, Velma
Maia Thomas, creator and curator of the Black Holocaust Museum,
providesan accessible overview and perspective on the enslavement
of Africans inAmerica. The book includes "interactive"
features, primarily facsimiles of period documents, pertaining
to the slave trade and to the experiences of those who were enslaved.
From a paper reproduction of a tobacco can one can produce the
treasured manumission papers of Robert Green, who had been enslaved
in Missouri until set free by his owner in 1838. The facsimile copy
captures the folded and worn character of the original paper,
and even includes an additional note on its back from the former
owner stating that "Should the bearer Robert Green be so unfortunate
as to be placed inany situation that may require aid or friends
and cannot procure, if any gentleman that will write me and of
his situation will greatly oblige". The effect is similar
to handling the actual artifact, making Robert Green's experience
that much more real for the reader. Photographs and first-hand accounts
of life under slavery help make the terrible pain and enormous scope
of African enslavement in America tangible and personal.
The book is divided into self-contained sections composed of the
two facing pages in front of the reader -- providing a succinct
but effective exposure to a variety of issues associated with slavery:
the Middle Passage, The Auction, "seasoning", childhood
under slavery, emancipation, and so forth. The color format of
this book includes half-toned images behind the text, photographs
of individuals, cut-out details of artifacts such as a whip, reproduced
period documents such as fugitive slave advertisements, and other
historic engravings and images. Transcriptions are provided at the
end of the book for the period documents reproduced in facsimile
form (though I did not realized this until I had read the entire
book and was flipping through its last pages). The text includes
enough detailed factual information to support itself without overloading
a non-academic reader, and the clear and well organized writing
style further contributes to the book's effectiveness. It is in
many ways a traveling-exhibit of sorts, whose well-captioned images
will provide a significant amount of interesting information to
those who choose not to stop and read the more detailed text.
Thomas keeps the experience of individuals in the fore and helps
put the reader in the place of the person on the auction block
about to be separated from their family forever. The experience
of fear and powerlessness created through the Middle Passage, seasoning,
arbitrary punishment and humiliation, the constant threat of loss
of family and community through sale, and the desire to resist
slavery by any means possible are brought into focus. Thomas emphasizes,
that though enslaved, Africans and African Americans always maintained
their own identity and constantly resisted slavery and racism in
a variety of ways, from open revolt to working slow. By consistently referring
to enslaved Africans and African Americans as "my ancestors", she
brings their experience closer to home and provides a sense of
identity to the enslaved that a reader may not feel in a more academic
account. As she states in her afterword, "Lest We Forget is
a tribute to those whose lives are told through the documents you've
seen and read.". Indeed it is, and it is a very effective,
non-academic, presentation of a very central element of American
history -- Slavery.
Spirits of the Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the
Madeline Burnside and Rosemarie Robotham. Foreword by Cornel
West. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1997. 192 pp., plates, index.
Paul Mullins, George Mason University
Madeline Burnside and Rosemarie Robotham weave a sweeping, eloquent,
and complex account of the transatlantic slave trade in this volume.
Burnside and Robotham's telling probes the international dimensions
of enslavement and colonialism by examining the material culture
recovered from the Henrietta Marie. A French-built English merchant
slaver, the Henrietta Marie carried over 400 enslaved Africans
and a range of slave trade cargo between 1697 and 1700, when it
sank off the Florida coast. The ship lay there until its excavation
by the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society in the 1980s. Spirits of
the Passage is a model of lucid and thorough writing on perhaps
the most tangled of historical stories, synthesizing a wide range
of historiographical resources and contemplating the myriad facets
of the 17th-century world. Rather than an account of an isolated
shipwreck, Spirits of the Passage is primarily a narrative which
traces slave trade connections across space and time between sub-Saharan
African trade, western European maritime commerce,the Middle Passage,
and African resistance in the Americas.
The volume's foreword by Cornel West adds the sort of concise
and penetrating commentary readers expect from West. West's sharply
thought-out introduction raises familiar but powerfully articulated
paradoxes about the fundamental social contradictions of slavery
and racism and their reach across five centuries. Robotham pens
a brief introduction to the volume which focuses on the human experiences
of the slave trade. Burnside, executive director of the Mel Fisher
Maritime Heritage Society, adds an afterword on the archaeological discovery
and excavation of the Henrietta Marie. The book's exquisite aesthetics and
production will be the envy of every archaeologist resigned to
readand write contract reports or small press volumes which do
not have the benefit of costly technical production.
As a social history drawing on a vast range of period narratives,
graphics, and secondary accounts examining the worldwide breadth
of the traffic inhumans, Spirits of the Passage is an incisive
and compelling study of the complex state, material, and social
forces shaping slavery. Spirits of the Passage aspires to paint
a picture of the world's players in the slave trade, and it does
so quite well. Yet, as an archaeological account, Spirits of the
Passage does not devote sufficient attention to the Henrietta
Marie's material culture. The evocative power of the Henrietta
Marie's material culture -- from ankle shackles to Venetian trade
beads -- certainly is well-suited to emphasizing the tragic, gripping,
and ignoble human dimensions of the transatlantic slave trade and
the Middle Passage. Robotham's introduction recognizes that items
like nearly 100 pairs of shackles can conjure powerful human stories,
but Spirits of the Passage is generally a measured march through
slave trade history that is periodically punctuated by illustrations of
excavated objects. While it synthesizes a rich range of resources
and literature, Spirits of the Passage devotes relatively little
close and detailed attention to specific objects from the Henrietta
Marie, their aesthetics or function, or the ship itself with the
rigor expected of underwater and African-American archaeologies.
Spirits of the Passage is constructed like a conventional, albeit
eloquent historical narrative with an episodic storyline, a textual
style unlike most historical archaeology's use of fine-grained material
analyses to illuminate concealed and otherwise-lost minutia of everyday
life. The illustrations of Henrietta Marie artifacts are striking and
the sidebars articulate, but Spirits of the Passage's text tells
the story of worldwide social and material changes which created
slavery and were in turn impacted by the slave trade, not the history
of this one ill-fated ship or the men, women, and children who
were captors and captives aboard it. In this sense, Spirits of
the Passage charts a distinctive textual style which synthesizes
archaeological and historiographical conventions. The book eschews
the rigorous material analysis associated with most archaeological literature
and instead uses stunning graphics to evoke the human stories concealed
by the book's otherwise standard slave trade historiography. Some archaeologists
may prefer to see systematic material analysis at the heart of
such a book, concerned that this sort of graphic-intensive text
simply reduces objects to superfluous ornamentation. Indeed, Spirits
of the Passage might well have been written without the Henrietta
Marie material culture. Yet the incorporation of even a modest
quantity of material culture -- even though these figure primarily
as illustrations -- clearly advances the book's effort to contemplate
the human experiences of slavery, so it charts a provocative path
for the writing of African-American archaeologies.
Archaeological readers inevitably will wonder about the politics
of this excavation and its well-known excavators. The Henrietta
Marie was identified by Mel Fisher in 1972 as he surveyed for the
Spanish galleon the Nuestra Senora de Atocha. Fisher's team returned
to the Henrietta Marie after the highly publicized Atocha excavation,
a dig which likely illuminated the conflict between treasure hunters
and archaeologists more than any other underwater archaeological
project. In 1972, Fisher passed over the Henrietta Marie when it
yielded artifacts which revealed it to be English and too late
to be the Atocha, but Spirits of the Passage does not illuminate
why Fisher returned to the Henrietta Marie a decade later. Madeline
Burnside's afterword to the volume discusses the wreck's excavation,
but it is a quite brief and circumspect account of the wreck's
identification which will not address archaeologists' detailed
research questions about the excavation, the ship's material culture,
or the politics of underwater salvage. Burnside includes a poignant
account of dives on the Henrietta Marie by the National Association
of Black Scuba Divers, but the afterword, and, by extension, the
political context of the ship's excavation and interpretation,
is not clearly linked to the book's historical narrative.
Spirits of the Passage is a thorough, critical, and lucidly written
analysis of the birth of the slave trade, and it is a visually
stunning production. Perhaps the powerful material evidence of
the Henrietta Marie could be more clearly linked to Spirits of
the Passage's broader focus, serving less as an accent for the
historical narrative than the framework for the story. Nevertheless,
the book provides a solid introduction to the slave trade and suggests
how African-American archaeologists can begin to integrate thorough
historical narrative, object analysis, and inchoate material symbolism in
an imaginative, accessible, and empirically rigorous text style.
News and Announcements
On Wednesday, October 14, 1998, the 11th Annual James Monroe
Lecture, "Slavery and James Monroe's America" was presented
by Robert P. Forbes, executive coordinator, Gilder Lehrman Center
for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition, Yale University
and author of Slavery and the Meaning of America: The Missouri
Crisis and its Aftermath. For additional information contact John
Pearce, Director, James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library, (540)
Getting the Word: Monticello has initiated an African-American
oral history project which is seeking to locate and interview descendants
of the site's African-American community. The project's staff includes
Lucia Stanton, Dianne Swann-Wright, and Beverly Gray. To learn
more contact The Getting the Word Project , Monticello, P. O. Box
316, Charlottesville, VA 22902. (804) 984-9864.
Look for news from the January meetings of the Society for Historical
Archaeology and the World Archaeological Congress in A-AA No. 23,
Editor/Publisher: John P. McCarthy, Greenhorne &
O'Mara, Inc., 9001 Edmonston Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (301)-220-1876
Assistant Editor: Paul Mullins, Anthropology Program,
George Mason University, MSN-3GS, Fairfax, VA 22030
Progression: Carol McDavid, 1406 Sul Ross, Houston, TX 77007
Northeast/Book Reviews: James Garmon, Public Archaeology
Laboratory, Inc., 210 Lonsdale Avenue, Pawtucket, RI 02860 (401)-728-8780
Mid-Atlantic: Barbara Heath, The Corporation for Jefferson's
Popular Forest, P. O. Box 419, Forest, VA 24551
Southeast: Joe W. Joseph, New South Associates, Inc.
4889 Lewis Road, Stone Mountain, GA 30083 (770)-498-4155
Caribbean: Paul Farnsworth, Dept. of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana
State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Midwest: Matthew Emerson, Anthropology Department, Southern
Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (618)-692-5689
Mid-South/So. Plains: Leslie "Skip" Stewart-Abernathy, Arkansas
Archaeological Survey, P. O. Box 8706 AKU, Russellville, AK 72801 (501)-968-0381
West: Laurie Wilkie, Anthropology Department, University
of California, Berkeley, CA 94720
Subscriptions, by the calendar year, are: $4.00 student; $6.00
individual;$8.00 institutions/outside the USA. Payable by check
to: "African-American Archaeology"
Amount enclosed $_____________
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City, State/Prov., Zip/Postal Code, Country:______________________________________________________
Daytime Telephone: (______)_____________________ E-mail: ___________________________________
c/o John P. McCarthy, RPA
Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc.
9001 Edmonston Road
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1083
Published in cooperation with the Council for
Electronic version compiled by Thomas
R. Wheaton, New South Associates, Inc.
©2005 African Diaspora Archaeology Network
Please send comments or questions to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Last updated: April 16, 2005