Newsletter of the African-American
Applied Archaeology and History
615 Fairglen Lane, Annapolis, MD 21401
Number 23, Winter 1999John P. McCarthy,Editor
African Skeletons at Jamestown
The recent issue of CRM: Cultural Resource Management (Vol.
22, No.1) focuses on the Jamestown Archaeological Assessment.
The issue includes a brief report by Dr. Douglas W. Owsley of
the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History on the
analysis of 15 sets of human remains recovered during archaeological
investigations at Jamestown, including the remains of two individuals
recently discovered inside James Fort.
The analysis brought new analytical techniques
to bear on the remains previously recovered at the site. The demographic
composition of the group was assessed with the sex of 12 of the
individuals being determined and the age revised for 10. Seven
of the individuals had previously been identified as Native American
and the remainder had been unidentified. Reanalysis using modern
classification methods and comparison databases resulted in the
identification of five Africans and the confirmation of only three
Native Americans. These Africans were among the first brought
to North America.
Of special interest were the nearly complete
remains of a male African, 23 to 27 years of age. This individual
suffered from advanced tertiary syphilis. ~However, this disease
was not the cause of death. The frontal bone of the skull evidenced
a circular defect with radiating wedge-shaped fractures indicating
the entry point of a projectile, with additional fractures at
the exit site. Radiographs revealed fragments of metal surrounding
the wound site. This young man had clearly died from a gun shot
to the head.
To Dr. Owsley these results argue the importance
of complete analysis of human remains, including those held in
"old" collections. However, they also appear to be indicative
of the violence that accompanied the forced importation of Africans
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on Spalling on South Carolina Colonoware
Chris Espenshade, Skelly and Loy, Inc.,
Spalling has been documented on the colonoware
from a number of South Carolina slave sites including Yaughan
(Wheaton et al. 1983), 38BK202 (Zierden et al. 1986), Mepkin plantation
(Ferguson 1992), Hampton plantation (Lewis and Haskell 1980),
and the Pinckney Landing slave row (Pietak et al. 1998). Ferguson
(1992) reports that nine of the 67 whole colonoware vessels from
South Carolina are spalled. Some caution must be exercised here
because the majority of the whole vessels were derived from river
contexts by sport divers, and failures might be more likely to
have been thrown away in the river than us-able vessels. Nevertheless,
there is a high frequency of spalling in slave-made pottery in
South Carolina, significantly higher than seen in Woodland and
Mississippian pottery of the state.
Spalling is interesting in two regards.
First, spalling that was severe enough to render a vessel useless
should indicate on-site production (Ferguson 1992; Wheaton et
al. 1983). Damaged pots probably would not have been transported
away from the site of their production. Archaeologists, then,
should be happy to see the technological failures represented
by spalling, in that spalling helps delineate the locations of
A second point is that spalling may indicate
a general lack of familiarity with local ceramic resources. A
number of factors can contribute to spalling:
- incomplete drying of the vessel before firing, resulting in steam jets as the internal water is heated and expands.
- overly rapid heating of the vessel during firing, not allowing time for the internal water to seep through the pore structure rather than expanding in place.
- insufficient voids within the paste to facilitate the release of chemically combined water in the body.
- purposeful compression and/or sealing of the vessel surfaces, precluding the natural escape of steam during the initial firing.
The first factor reflects directly on the
familiarity of the potter with her or his materials. Compared
to colonoware collections, spalling is relatively uncommon in
Native American assemblages in South Carolina. The Native Americans
probably had a similar firing technology to that of the slaves,
but the former may have better understood the limitations of the
The second factor deals with resistance
to thermal shock. Traditional potters are generally very familiar
with the stress that can be placed upon the clay bodies they use.
Relative newcomers would have been less familiar with the performance
of local clays and may have suffered higher losses as a result.
The third factor is related to recognizing
problems and finding technological solutions. For example, Native
American potters in the Southeast added coarse-very coarse quartz,
grog, or fiber to enhance the performance of their pottery. The
addition of any of these would decrease the likelihood of spalling,
but the slave potters used untempered clays. Again, this suggests
an unfamiliarity with the local resources, their problems, and
the associated technological solutions.
The last factor might be seen as ironic.
The slave potters chose the worst possible mode of surface finish
relative to spalling. Burnishing compresses the vessel surface,
inhibiting the flow of gasses and liquids. As chemically combined
water is released during the firing, it naturally seeks exit from
the clay body. On burnished sherds, the exit is at least partially
blocked. The result can be spalling, as the blockage is literally
blown out of the way. Informal replication has shown that under
similar production, drying, and firing conditions, a burnished
bowl is more likely to spall than a lightly smoothed bowl. Thus,
it appears that the colonoware decorative tradition was not well
suited to local ceramic materials and firing conditions.
On the surface, the reader may wonder, "So
what?" It makes sense that potters shipped across the ocean
from their homeland would be unfamiliar with local materials.
This unfamiliarity is not logical, however, if a Native American
and African-American creolism is seen as the source of South Carolina
colonoware. Put another way, if Native Americans had shared their
pottery-making knowledge with enslaved Africans (sensu Steen et
al. 1996), they did not do a very good job. They seem to have
failed to discuss the limitations of the local materials, and
they failed to suggest temper additions or changes in decorative
modes that would have lessened firing loss.
More sensibly, the relatively high rate
of spalling among colonoware from slave contexts in South Carolina
can be seen to indicate a foreign (i.e., African or African-Caribbean)
technological and decorative tradition dragged to a South Carolina
setting. The high incidence of spalling is not consistent with
a genesis of colonoware in an African-American and Native American
1992 Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America,
1650-1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
Lewis, K., and H. Haskell
1980 Hampton II: Further Archaeological Investigations at a Santee
River Plantation. Research Manuscript
Series, No. 161, Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology,
University of South Carolina, Columbia.
Pietak, L.M., C. Espenshade, J. Holland,
and L. Kennedy
1998 Slave L~feways on Spring Island: Data Recovery Excavations
at 38BU5, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Report prepared
for Spring Island Company. TRC Garrow Associates, Inc., Atlanta.
Steen, C., D. Elliott, R Folse-Elliott,
and A.N. Warren
1996 Further Excavations at John de al Howe's Let he Farm.
Report prepared for the South Carolina Department of Archives
and History. Diachronic Research Foundation, Columbia, South Carolina.
Wheaton, T.R., A. Friedlander, and P.H.
1983 Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations: Studies in Afro-American
Archaeology. Report prepared for the U.S.Army Corps of Engineers,
Charleston District. Soil Systems, Inc., Marietta, Georgia
Zierden, MA, LM. Drucker, and J. Calhoun
1986 Home Upriver: Rural Life on Daniels Island, Berkeley County,
South Carolina. Report prepared for the South Carolina Department
of Highways and Public Transportation. Charleston Museum, Charleston.
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Investigations at Monterey
Hank McKelway, Cultural Resource Analysts,
Inc., Lexington, KY
Phase m investigations were recently completed
at the 19"' and 20"'-century hamlet of Monterey, located
along Paris Pike in Bourbon County, Kentucky. Within the community,
a toll house operated along the macadamized turnpike, built in
1835. A local wool carding operation used this new commercial
highway to transport goods, while blacksmith shops serviced traffic
along this major thoroughfare from Lexington to Paris.
The site of Monterey is especially significant
with regard to African-American history in Kentucky. Within the
small community a free African-American family, of ex-slaves,
resided on a lot bought in 1835 by a freed African-American woman.
Contemporaneously, on another lot in the community enslaved African
Americans were also resident. African Americans continued to reside
at Monterey into the 20"' century. One resident, William
Moore, appears to have been a prominent community blacksmith who
donated a parcel of his land for the formation of an A.M.E. church.
The site was first located through archival
research associated with initial Phase I archeological surveys
to widen Paris Pike conducted by archeologists from the Kentucky
Transportation Cabinet. Cultural Resource Analysts was selected
to conduct Phase II investigations of the hamlet, and designed
the testing program to facilitate the identification of the significant
cultural resources within the community. Surveyors located all
five historic property lot boundaries at Monterey using deed records
and a computerized historic mapping program. A more extensive
systematic shovel testing program collected data used to create
artifact density maps. Concentrations of architectural material
dating to the early 19k" century suggested the locations
of early residences. State of the art remote sensing equipment
was also utilized. Dr. Berle Clay conducted the field study and
generated maps of the site area depicting anomalies. Phase III
investigations ensued, and subsequent backhoe trenching and manual
excavation located eleven structures and outbuildings, including
the residences of free and enslaved African-Americans.
To begin the investigation of this early
hamlet, Dr. Jeff Mauck reviewed pertinent archival records of
the area. Mauck's research documented a very rich history. The
hamlet contained antebellum free and enslaved African-American
and European-American residents, along with two blacksmith shops,
a wool carding shop, and a residence that functioned as a toll
house. According to census records, there was an influx of freed
African Americans into the hamlet in the later 19"' century.
The archival overview established the presence
of African Americans at Monterey. In Lot 1, Dr. Mauck established
the presence of a freed African-American couple located in a residence
at the far eastern end of the project area. Her master had freed
Frankie Robison at the age of 35. Her husband Henry's freedom
had been purchased, perhaps with Frankie's help, for four hundred
dollars. In 1856, Henry inherited the property from Franky. Interestingly,
he subsequently transferred the title to the land as well as three
horses, three cows and one wagon to Sidney Clay, a prominent local
land holder, in a deed of trust for the benefit of Robison's new
wife Charlotte. He arranged for Clay to manage the tract in such
a way that Charlotte would have a place to live for the remainder
of her years. The 1860 census indicates that Henry Robison was
a 70 year old free black laborer. His wife Charlotte was 57. Francis
Clay, Charlotte's daughter was 20. In 1868, an apparently widowed
Charlotte Robison sold the property to Willis Brown, a local African-American
resident, who resided on the lot until after the turn of the century.
W.P. Dorsey, an European American, acquired
Lot 3 near the center of the site area in 1849. The 1860 census
listed Willis Dorsey, age 44, as a "merchant." He owned
$600 of real estate and possessed a personal estate of $1000.
Living in the house was his wife Sarah, age 44, and five children.
Of special significance was the 1860 slave census stating that
he owned three slaves, one female and two males, and that two
lived outside Dorsey's house.
On Lot 4, adjacent to Dorsey's lot, Harriet
Moore, an African American, acquired the property in 1865. Her
husband was William Moore, a blacksmith. He had apparently rented
the old Anderson place and operated the blacksmith shop for several
years previous to the purchase. The 1860 census reported Moore,
a 45 year old "mulatto" blacksmith, who stated his personal
estate to be worth $100, living in the survey area. His wife Harriet,
age 26, and son Moses, also a blacksmith, also lived in the survey
area. The 1860 manufacturing census sheds additional light on
this family. It lists a "Billy" Moore --the name which
Moore went by on other legal documents--as being a blacksmith
with $1000 invested in his operation. He used $500 of iron annually,
employed two male workers, paid $60 a month in wages, and produced
an annual product valued at $2000.
Excavations identified structures and midden
areas associated with the African-American occupants of Monterey.
Backhoe trenching and unit excavation across the eastern margin
of the site area encountered the chimney pad, foundation remnants,
and external root cellar of the residence of free African Americans,
the Robisons. Artifacts associated with the chimney pad date to
the early 19"' century, and included quantities of domestic
debris and faunal remains.
In Lot 3, near the center of the site area
the remains of Dorsey's house were identified, and the foundations
of a two-pen cabin were uncovered at the back edge of the house
Lot. This structure likely housed the two slaves noted in the
documents. Domestic and faunal debris was abundant in and around
In Lot 4, the double end-chimney foundations
of Mrs. Anderson's early 19"'-century house were uncovered.
At the back end of this Lot, a midden dating to the occupation
of William Moore was identified. Moore's blacksmith shop was identified
as well, and the associated worked metal artifacts suggest his
smithing was focused on horsehoeing and wagon repairs associated
no doubt with traffic along the old turnpike.
The Phase III investigations at Monterey
were concluded in mid- December. The important components of the
small town were located, and the research to understand the early
lifeways and relationships of these early Kentuckians is underway.
The potential significance of this site is focused on comparing
the material culture differences between the free and enslaved
African Americans, and their European-American neighbors at Monterey.
A highly successful public tour program was also initiated at
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in the National Parks
As reported in CRM: Cultural Resource
Management (Vol. 22, No. 1, Supplement), there have been several
recent historical studies sponsored or supported by, or related
to, National Parks which may be of interest of readers of AA A.
For more information, contact the responsible park unit.
The University of Arkansas, Department of
Anthropology and the Center for Arkansas and Regional Studies
completed a study of African-American culture in southwest Missouri
for the George Washington Carver National Monument.
An oral history project focusing on African
Americans is being undertaken by Arvilla Payne-Jackson and Sue
Taylor for the Prince William Forest Park in Virginia.
Several products have resulted from the
Park Service's recent interest in the Underground Railroad. Underground
Railroad, National Park Handbook 156, was completed for the Washington
Office of the Park Service by Larry Gara, et al. In addition,
Marie Tyler-McGraw and Kira K Badamo completed the Underground
Railroad Resources in the United States Theme Study.
Barbara Yocum's historic structure report
for the Smith School House was published by Boston African American
National Historic Site.
A number of studies of free and bound labor
were completed for Hampton National Historic Site in Maryland,
including "The African-American Experience at Hampton"
by Kent K Lancaster and Marilyn Davis.
Dean Rowley completed a historic resource
study of the Auburn Avenue Community, 1865-1930 for the Martin
Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta.
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To mark Black History Month, 1999, the Washington
Office of the National Park Service complied the following list
of internet resources for African-American history.
We shall Overcome: Historic Place of the
Civil Rights Movement: www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights.
Our Shared History: Celebrating African
American History & Culture: www.cr.nps.gov/aahistory.
Aboard the Underground Railroad: www.cr.nps.gov/nr/Underground.
African American Heritage in the Golden
Lost, Tossed and Found: Clues to African
American Life at Manassas NBP: www.cr.nps.gov/mrc/exhibit/arch00.
Underground Railroad: www.cr.nps.gov/delta/under.
Underground Railroad, Special Resources Study: www.cr.nps.
Underground Railroad, Theme Study: www.cr.nps.gov/nr/underground/thhome.
Underground Railroad, Archeology Study:
African American Parks and Sites, Detailed
listing and Web Connections: www.cr.nps.gov/aahistory/bhm-sites.
NPS books on African American History &
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Historic Site, Kansas, Dedication
This unit of the National Park Service was
officially dedicated on August 1, 1999 in a ceremony attended
by approximately 1,000 people. The event was as part of the community's
120th annual homecoming celebration. The park, which was officially
established on November 12, 1996, is presently being managed by
Fort Lamed National Historic Site.
Nicodemus, Kansas, was settled in 1877 by
African Americans who left the South to seek true freedom and
self-government on the northwestern Kansas prairie. Despite many
hardships, and the failure of the railroad to come through the
town, the residents persevered and Nicodemus still survives. It
is the only remaining all African-American town west of the Mississippi.
The park preserves five historic structures in the town and will
interpret the role Nicodemus played in regional and national history.
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of African Americans at the Library of Congress
African Americans represented in the Civil
War Photograph Collection in the Prints and Photographs Reading
Room fall into several categories, including soldiers, civilians
attached to the military, and contraband and refugees. Although
images of African American soldiers are in high demand, they are
not well represented here. Each image is listed by group ("LOT")
number, and a brief description and the identification numbers
needed for reproduction requests are provided. For record-keeping
purposes, both glass and film negative numbers are cited. However,
in ordering reproductions, the film negative number must be used,
if one exists. Images with negative numbers beginning "LC-B815..."
are stereographic images.
The list includes citations to three major
works, which are noted as LC staff encounter reproductions of
images in them. The works are:
-Gardner, Alexander. Photographic Sketch
Book of the Civil War. Reprint. New York: Dover, . [LC cal
number: E468.7.G19] (cited as "Gardner's Photographic Sketch
-Image of War, 1861-1865. 6 vol. Garden
City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981-1984. [various call numbers] (cited
as "Image of War")
- Miller, Francis Tervelyan, ed. The Photographic
History of the Civil War. 10 vol. New York: T. Yoseloff, 
[LC call number: E468.7.M64 1957] (cited as "Miller")
1."Store House of Christian Commission,
D.C." Shows three blacks posed with a family in front of
a store; the blacks stand on the ground and the others pose on
the porch (marked 721). Reproduced in Miller, vol.
VII, p. 32. LC-B8184-7721 (film negative).
1."Headquarters of Signal Crops, Washington,
1865." Shows black man standing at gate. LC-B8171-
7814 (film negative), LC-U5Z62-50173 (film negative).
2."Quartermaster's Warehouses, Washington,
1865." Shows black men standing in front of
warehouses; blacks and whites stand separate. LCB8184-10723 (film
1."Old State Department Building, 15th
and Pennsylvania Avenue." Shows a black man seated selling
bread. LCB8184-10707 (film negative).
1."Slave Pen, Alexandria, Va."
Shows four black soldiers standing at attention along a wagon
in front of the
firm of Price & Birch Co. (marked 2296, stereo by the
War Photograph and Exhibition Co.). LC-B8171-2296
(film negative); LC-B811-2296 (glass negative).
2.Portrait of a lone black woman standing in front of the "slave
pen" in Alexandria, Va., the firm of Price & Birch Co.,
"Slave Dealers," in the background (marked 2300). LC-B8u-2300
3."Freedmen's Village, Arlington, Va."
Shows about 100 blacks lined up in front of barracks with books,
evidently a school group learning to read. LC-B8184-B1163 (film
4."Freedmen's Barracks, Arlington,
Va." Shows a group of freedmen in front of barracks. LC-B8184-B-350
5."Building Stockade, Alexandria, Va."
Shows a group of black construction workers in front of a wooden
stockade digging a ditch. Reproduced in Miller, vol. 5, p. 9L
LC-B8184-524 (film negative).
LOT 4162 (Stereograph File)
1."Ruins of Richmond, April, 1865."
Shows a black man seated in front of ruins. (Marked "6260.")
(No negative number.)
1."U.S. Christian Commission Office,
Richmond, Va., April, 1865." Shows a group including blacks
in front of a building (marked 3371). LC-B8171-3371 (film negative).
2."Group of Freedmen, Richmond, Va."
Shows a black family and men seated along the canal with the ruins
in the background. LC-B8171-948 (film negative).
3."View of Canal Bridge at Foot of
7th Street, Richmond."
Shows black children standing on the bridge. LC-B8171-
868 (film negative); LC-USZ62-58817 (film negative);
LC-B811-868 (glass negative).
1."Headquarters of the U.S. Christian
Commission, Richmond, Va., April, 1865." Shows a group including
black men, women and children in front of building (marked 841).
LC-B8184-B-41 (film negative).
2."Washington Headquarters, Richmond,
Va." Shows a black woman seated on the sidewalk in front
of a building. LC-B815-935 (glass negative).
3."The African Church, Richmond, Va."
Shows a group of blacks in front of the church (marked B1211).
LCB8184-B-1211 (film negative).
1."Ruins on Carey Street, Richmond,
Va." Shows white men inspecting the ruins with one black
man holding a coat (marked B250). LC-B8184-250 (film negative).
2."The Fall of Richmond, Refugees,
April 2, 1865." Shows black refugees on a boat with household
belongings. Reproduced in Miller, vol.5, pp. 318-319. LC-B8171-7617
3."The African Church." Shows
a group of blacks in front of church (marked 3368). LC-B8171-3368
(film negative); LC-B811-3368 (glass negative).
4."St. John's Church." Shows a
black man and little girl with white children in front of church
(marked 3366). LC-B811-3366 (glass negative).
1."General Lafayette, Headquarters
at Yorktown, Va." (Revolutionary War). Shows a group of blacks
in front of a house; they appear to be servants. LC-B815-369 (glass
LOT 4166-F (Stereograph File)
1."Bomb-proof quarters of Major Strong
at Dutch Gap, Va., July, 1864." Shows two black soldiers
seated outside of quarters. LC-B8171-2551 (film negative); LC-B8ii-2551
1."Collecting Remains of the Dead at
Cold Harbour, Va." Collecting remains for reinterument after
the war. Shows a black man sitting on the ground in front of a
barrel full of skulls and bones. Probably four black men in the
background digging graves. Reproduced in Gardner's ..j'hotographic
Sketchbook., vol.2, plate 94. LC-B8184-4154 (film negative).
2."Monument of Battlefield at Bull
Run, Va." Shows a group portrait of troops in front of the
monument with a black boy among them. LC-B817-7532R (glass negative).
1."Burial of Dead, Fredericksburg,
Va." Shows a black man digging graves. LC-B8184-B-473 (film
negative); LC-B811-2506 (glass negative).
1."Captain J.M. Robertson and Staff,
1st Brigade Horse Artillery, Brandy Station, Va., February, 1864."
Shows uniformed blacks in back of white officers. LC-B8171-7555
2."Camp U.S. Engineers, near Brandy
Station, Va., March,
1864." Shows black man holding a horse in a field. (No negative
3."Headquarters, 1st Brigade Horse
Artillery, near Brandy Station, Va., February, 1864." Shows
a black servant
standing beside a stack of firewood while white officers pose
for portrait. LC-B8171-7637 (film negative).
4."Staff Officers Mess, Headquarters
of the Army of the Potomac, Brandy Station, Va., April, 1864."
Shows a group of white officers eating while a black servant stands
behind them with a pitcher of water (marked 132). (No negative
5."Headquarters Army of the Potomac,
Brandy Station, Va., April, 1864." Shows camp of Telegraph
Corps, several black men working and white men relaxing. (No negative
1."Execution of colored soldier (William
Johnson), Petersburg, Va., June 20,1864." Shows hanging man
alone, the charge on which he was convicted was attempted rape.
LC-USZ62-49608 (film negative); LCB815-789 (glass negative)
2."View of South Carolina." Shows
a man in a field with a small black boy. LC-BH822-200 (glass negative).
LOT 4172-A (Stereograph File)
1."Contraband Foreground." Shows
three black boys sitting with three Union officers in front of
a tent. Stereo view by Anthony and Co., New York. LC-B8184-2062
2."A Group of Contrabands." Same
image as #1 in Lot 4172-B (described below). LC-B8171-2594 (film
negative); LC -U5Z62-27821 (film negative).
3."A Negro Family Coming into Union
Lines." Same image as #11 in Lot 4172-B (described below)
but printed as a stereograph. LC-B8171-657 (film negative; half
stereograph), LC-U5Z62-57031 (film negative; full stereograph).
1."Negro Teamsters." Shows group
of seven contraband dressed in old Union uniforms standing in
front of a wagon and shack. Same image as #1 in Lot 4172-A (described
above) except printed as half stereograph. LC-B8171-2594 (film
negative; half stereograph).
2."Convalescent Colored Troops at Aiken's
Landing. M. Aiken's house at right." Shows forty black soldiers
sitting and standing on a slight hill. LC-B8171-2608 (film negative).
3."Headquarters of General Lafayette
during the Revolutionary War, Yorktown, Va." Shows group
of soldiers and blacks in front of small house, two black washer
women with tubs, black man with an ax resting on the ground. LC-B8171-372
(film negative); LC-B815-372 (glass negative).
4."Group of contraband at Follers House,
Cumberland Landing, Va., May, 1862." Shows about twenty ex-slaves
sitting in front of a cabin; excellent photograph. LCB8171-383
5."Contraband." Shows two black
men, escaped slaves, sitting in front of a white army tent, one
with cigar and the other with a soup ladle. LC-B8171-221 (film
6."Fugitive Negroes, fording the Rappahannock
River, following the retreat of Pope's Army, August, 1862."
Shows wagon pulled by oxen across the river to join the Union
Army in 1862. LC-B815-519 (glass negative).
7."Fugitive Negroes, fording the Rappahannock
River, following the retreat of Pope's Army, August, 1862."
Closer view of 6, above. LC-B8171-518 (film negative).
8."John Henry, servant at Headquarters,
3rd Army Corps, October, 1863." Shows black servant sitting
in front of a large army tent. LC-B817-7339 (glass negative).
9."Breaking Camp, Brandy Station, Va.,
May, 1864." Shows black man next to chimney, lean-to in the
background. Reproduced in Gardner's _Photographic Sketchbook...,
vol. 2, plate 63. LC-B8184-4165 (film negative).
10."Camp of the Negro Labor Crew of
the Q. M. Depot, Belle Plain, Va." Shows a group of shacks
with clothes drying and seven blacks (contraband) standing in
front of the shacks. LC-B8184-324 (film negative).
11."Arrival of Negro Family into Union
Lines," Shows an overcrowded wagon with escaping slaves pulled
by two mules. Reproduced in Miller, vol.3, p. 223 (bottom). Same
image as #3 in Lot 4172-A (described above). LCB8171-657 (film
negative, half stereograph); LC-B811-657 (glass negative, half
stereograph); LC-U5Z62-57031 (full stereograph).
12."Negro Teamsters at Butler's Signal
Tower, Bermuda Hundred, Va., 1864." Shows a group of black
teamsters. LC-B8171-2596 (film negative); LC-B811-2596 (glass
13."Black cook at City Point, Va."
LC-B8171-2597 (film negative).
14."Camp of 10th U.S. Colored Infantry."
Shows group of blacks standing outside tents. (Marked 4319). (No
15."Camp of 27th U.S. Colored Infantry."
Shows tents and men standing amid trees in distance. (Marked 4096.)
(No negative number.)
1."Picket Post." Shows two black
soldiers in uniform aiming rifles while leaning against the edge
damaged wooden house. LC-B8171-2553 (film negative); LC-B811-2553
1."General Rawlins Horse.""
Shows a black boy on a horse taken at Cold Harbor, Va., June 14,
1864. (No negative number).
2."Captain Pierce's Private Horses,
Wagons, etc..., Culpeper, Va., Sept., 1863." Shows a black
man holding two horses and a young boy on the ground. (No negative
3."Captain Beckwith's Horse, Headquarters
Army of the Potomac, February, 1863." Shows a black man holding
a horse. LC-U5Z62-74527 (film negative).
1."Signal Tower at Point of Rocks,
Appomattox River, Va.," Shows a black man standing along
with signal core. Reproduced in Miller, vol.1, p. 37. LC-B8171-2500
(film negative); LC-B811-2500 (glass negative).
1."Headquarters of the New York Herald
in the Field, Bealton, Va., August, 1863." Shows a black
servant behind two seated reporters writing (marked 237). LCB8184-7237
2."Headquarters of the New York Herald
in the field." Shows a black man holding a horse in front
of a tent (marked B187). Photograph by A. J. Russell, in Miller,
Vol. 13, p. 293. LC-B8184-B-187 (film negative).
3."Brady's Photographic Outfit in front
Va., 1864 (?)." (U.S. Army Signal Corps "Brady
Photograph," catalogue, 1921, no. B-5077, Brady not in
photograph). Reproduced in Miller, vol. 13, p. 27. LCB8184-B-5077
1."1st Colored Infantry." Shows
infantry at attention from a side view (marked 3032). LC-B816-3032
2."Soldiers on Review, South Carolina."
Shows black troops on review (2 images). LC-BH822-341 and LCBH822-342
1."Battery of Light 12 Pounders on
Ordnance Wharf, City Point, Va." Shows long line of cannons
guarded by one black soldier. LC-B8184-2583 (film negative); LC-B811-2583
1."Pontoon Bridge, Belle Plain Landing,
Va." Photograph by A. J. Russell. Reproduced in Miller, vol.5,
236-37.LC-B8184-612 (film negative).
1."Dutch Gap Canal, November, 1864."
Shows two black soldiers while canal is under construction (marked
4320). (No negative number)
1."Quartermaster's Wharf~ Alexandria,
Va." Shows a group of about forty black laborers, mostly
sitting on wharf with shovels, buckets, etc. (marked B440). LC-B8184-440
2."Forge scene at Antietam, Md., April,
1862." Shows a black man seated with a shoe and hammer. LC-B8171-7940
3."Commissary Tent at Headquarters
of the Army of the
Potomac, near Fairfax Courthouse, Va., June, 1863."
Shows four blacks, one being handed provisions and
another weighing meat (marked 438). LC-B8184-7438
1."Camp of Chief Ambulance Officer,
9th Army Corps in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864."
Shows a group of white civilians, Army officers and a black servant
sitting under a hospital tent. LC-B8161-7538 (film negative).
2."Quarters of Chief Ambulance Officer,
9th Army Corps in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864."
Shows a group of officers with two black servants (marked 818).
LCB8184-818 (film negative).
3."Kitchen of 'Soldiers Rest,' Alexandria,
Va." Shows a black man cooking (marked 863). LC-U5Z62-23246
1."General Paul Humphreys and Staff,
June, 1865." Shows two black servants posed with white staff
on either end of tent. (No negative number).
2."General N.E. McLaughlin and Staff,
near Washington, D.C., July, 1865." Shows a black servant
with white staff (two images). LC-U5Z62-96478 (film negative);
LC-B8184-7180 (film negative).
3."General George Stoneman and Staff,
near Richmond, Va., June, 1862." Shows a small group of white
officers with a black servant sitting on the ground with a dog
in his lap. Photograph by James F. Gibson. LC-B815- 445 (glass
4."Major General Fits John Porter and
Staff, Headquarters of the Fifth Army Corps, Harrisons Landing,
James River, August, 1862." Shows a group of white officers
(each identified) and a female black servant in the
background (identification reads: "Chief cook and bottle
washer, Mrs. Fairfax"). (No negative number)
1."Officers, 33rd N.Y. Infantry: Field
and Staff of 33rd
N.Y. Infantry, Camp Granger, near Washington, D.C."
Shows officers with black staff members included. LCB8184-4542
2."Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry,
Fort Slocum, April, 1865." Shows a group of white officers
and several blacks in uniform. (marked 689). (No negative number)
3."Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry,
Fort Slocum, April,
1865." Shows group of white officers and three blacks, one
in uniform. (Marked 851.) LC-B8171-7851 (film negative).
4."Officers of the 114th Penn. Infantry
in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows two black
servants with a small group of white officers (marked 144). (No
5."Field and Staff of the 39th U.S.
Colored Infantry in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864."
Shows two black soldiers with white officers (marked 51). (No
6."Officers, Headquarters Army of the
Potomac, Warrenton, Va., September, 1864." Shows a group
of officers with black servant. Reproduced in Gardner's Yhotographic
Sketchbook.., vol. 1, plate 27. (No negative number)
7."Commissioned and Non-Commissioned
Staff of the 93rd Infantry, Ballston, Va., 1863," (marked
ii). (No negative number)
8."Officers of N.S. Horse Artillery,
Army of the Potomac, Culpeper, Va., September, 1863." Shows
black servant serving whiskey from a barrel to white officers.
(No negative number).
9.Group of officers in front of a house
with a black servant seated on the ground. (No negative number)
10."Captains Jane and Clark."
Shows white officers with black servant. (No negative number)
11."Major H. H. Humphrey and Others,
June, 1865." Shows white officers in front of a tent with
black servant holding a flask in the background. (No negative
12."Officers of the 107th U.S. Colored
Infantry." Shows a group of officers on a porch, including
one black guard at attention (marked 684). (No negative number)
1."Negro Soldiers." Identified
by Bill Wiley in 1953:
thought to be a group of Union soldiers, ca. 1863-1865, with their
Northern officers and teachers probably on the South Carolina
coast. LC-B8184-10061 (film negative).
2.Unidentified group of officers in front
of a house with their black servant. (No negative number)
3."Gettysburg, Camp of Captain Huft,
July, 1865." Shows white men relaxing by their tents while
six black servants cook. (No negative number)
4."Provost Marshal's Office, Acquia
Creek Landing, Va., Winter 1862-63." Shows a black clerk
off to the side of a group of white men. Reproduced in Gardner's
_Photographic Sketchbook.., vol. 1, plate 46. (No negative number)
5."Captain Howard and Group Headquarters,
Army of the Potomac, Fairfax, Va., June, 1863." Shows a black
boy seated on the ground in front of white staff. LCB8184-7549
6.'Telegraph Corps, Brandy Station, Va.,
April, 1864." Shows black men chopping wood while white soldiers
relax near their tents. LC-BH84-7353 (glass negative).
7."Group, 22nd N.Y. State Militia,
near Harper's Ferry,
Va., 1861 (?)." Shows black soldiers seated and black
cook standing in the background (marked B838).
Reproduced in Miller, vol. 7, p. 69, also in LOT 4189.
LC-B8184-B-163 (film negative).
8."Headquarters of the 16th N.Y. Infantry."
Shows a black servant standing behind two white soldiers playing
chess. Reproduced in Miller, vol. 8, p. 241. LC-B8184-B-305 (film
9."Headquarters of the Army of the
1862." Shows white officers seated on ground and a black
servant seated behind them in a rocking chair, men are identified.
LC-U5Z62-82793 (film negative).
10."Group at Quartermaster General's
Office, Washington, D.C., April, 1865." Shows a black man,
probably a servant, among large group in front of a building (three
images). LC-B8184-7826. Reproduced in Miller, vol. 8, p. 38. LC-B8184-7871
(film negative); LCB8184-7828 (film negative).
11."Group at Quartermaster General's
D.C., April, 1865." Shows a black man, probably a
servant, among large group in front of a Renwick
Building, Washington, D.C. Reproduced in Miller, vol.
8, p. 38. LC-B817-7827 (glass negative).
12."Headquarters of General O.B. Wilcox,
in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows white officers
watching a cock fight conducted by two black servants (chickens
clearer in this image). LC-B8171-7222 (film negative); LC-B817-7222
13."Headquarters of General 0. B. Wilcox, in front of
Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows white officers
watching a cock fight conducted by two black servants
(people slightly better in this image). LC-B8161-7722A
(film negative); LC-B817-7952 (glass negative).
14."Mess House at Government Stables, Washington, D.C.,
April, 1865." Shows group of whites and black kitchen servants
standing in front of the kitchen and mess hall. LC-B817-7676 (glass
15."Scouts and Guides of the Army of
the Potomac." Shows a large group of guides and black man
wearing an apron standing with them. LC-B8171-7105 (film negative).
16."Commissary Clerks, Acquia Creek
1863." Shows seven clerks in camp, black clerk seated on
the left. (No negative number)
17."Provost Marshall Depot, Petersburg,
August, 1864." Shows a group with two black men in the back.
LC-B817-7537 (glass negative).
18."9th Mass. Infantry, Camp near Washington,
D.C., 1861." Shows white officers with black servant seated
on the ground (marked 8142). LC-U5Z62-12228 (film negative).
1."2nd Rhode Island Infantry."
Shows two black boys with a group of white officers (marked 817).
(No negative number)
2."2nd Rhode Island Infantry."
Shows three black boys seated on the ground in front of three
white officers (marked 919). (No negative number)
3."2nd Rhode Island Infantry."
Shows a black boy reclining and smiling in front of infantrymen
(marked 1055). (No negative number)
4."2nd Rhode Island Infantry."
Shows a black man in the background under shelter behind a group
of white officers (marked 821). (No negative number)
5."2nd Rhode Island Infantry."
Shows a black boy seated in front of three standing soldiers (marked
1053.) (No negative number)
6."2nd Rhode Island Infantry."
Shows a black man reclining on the ground in font of a group of
infantrymen (marked 1041). (No negative number)
7."7th New York State Militia, Camp
Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black boy wearing an apron
holding a frying pan in front of three white officers (marked
B952). (No negative number)
8."7th New York State Militia, Camp
Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black boy seated in front of
a group of white officers (marked B954). (No negative number)
9."7th New York State Militia, Camp
Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black boy shining shoes next
to white officers (marked 13950). (No negative number)
10."7th New York State Militia, Camp
Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black servant washing in a
bowl on the ground in front of a group of white officers (marked
13902). (No negative number)
11."22nd New York State Militia, near
Harper's Ferry, Va.,
1861." Shows a black boy carrying things from a tent (marked
B873). (No negative number).
12."23rd New York Infantry." Shows
a black man seated with white officers shining boots (marked B1028).
(No negative number)
13."23rd New York Infantry." Shows
a black man seated with one white officer in front of a tent (marked
B1065). (No negative number)
1."Co. E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry,
defenses of Washington." Shows 27 blacks in two lines with
rifles resting on the ground (marked 890). LCB8171-7890 (film
negative); LC-B817-7890 (glass negative).
2."Band of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry."
Shows a group of 20 black soldiers with musical instruments (marked
861). LC-B8171-7861 (film negative).
Top of Page
News and Announcements
HERMITAGE SUMMER INTERNSHIPS: President
Andrew Jackson's home, The Hermitage, near Nashville, TN has summer
internship positions in historical archaeology. Contact Ms. Jillian
Galle, Research Archaeologist, at (615) 889-2941 for additional
REMEMBERING SLAVERY: This Library of Congress
project makes available for the first time of many of the hundreds
of interviews of elderly ex-slaves made by the Federal Writers'
Project in the 1930s. The interviews are available in both recordings
and transcriptions. Additional information is available by calling
(202) 707-5221 or on the WWW at http://www.lcweb.loc.gov/loc/cfbook.
MARYLAND MUSEUM OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY
AND CULTURE: This new museum, planned for Baltimore's Inner Harbor,
will be dedicated to collecting, preserving, and interpreting
the history, arts, material culture, and spiritual expression
of African-Americans in Maryland. The project, a public/private
partnership, is part of the Department of Housing and Community
Development's African-American Initiative. For information contact
Ms. Nikki Smith at (410) 514-7643.
VOLUNTEER EXCAVATION OPPORTUNITY: Dr. Mary
Forest Archaeologist at Shawnee National Forest, is planning a
project at Miller Grove, a southern illinois freedmen fanning
community, for June 1999.
AFRICAN-AMERICAN BIBLIOGRAPHIES FROM THE
NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY: Ms. Deborah Richardson, Head of
Educational Programs at the NAL, has compiled three bibliographies
in the "Selected Sources from the AGRICOLA Database"
series: 1) African-American History and Culture, 2) African-Americans
in Agriculture, and 3) African-American Sociology and Economics.
Additional information is available from the NAL at (301)504-5779
AFRICAN STUDIES QUARTERLY is an online journal
of African studies, indexed in Public Affairs Information Service.
It can be found at http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asaj.
AFRICAN IMPACT ON THE MATERIAL CULTURE OF
THE AMERICAS: Proceedings from this 1996 conference are now available
by mail from the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts for
$20.00 (plus $1.20 sales tax each and shipping $3.00 for the first
copy, $1.75 additional copies). MasterCard, Visa, and checks (payable
to "MESDA/Impact") accepted. P.O. Box 10310, Winston-Salem,
FRIENDS OF THE FREEDMEN'S CEMETERY: The
Freedmen's Cemetery in Alexandria, VA is the rediscovered resting
place of Freedmen (some of whom served in the Union Army) and
"Contrabands." The site is adjacent to the area to be
affected by the proposed reconstructed of the Wilson (1-95) Bridge.
The Friends were formed to research and monitor the site. Additional
information is available from the Alexandria Black History Resources
Center at (703) 838-4356.
THE WORLD ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONGRESS 4, CAPE
WAC 4 was well-attended by American historical archaeologists,
and two sessions addressed African-American archaeology in particular:
1) Archaeology, bioanthropology, and African identity in the diaspora
(Epperson and Agorsah, organizers) and 2) African-American archaeology
(Wheaton and McCarthy, organizers). The complete program, session
and paper abstracts, and the full text of many papers are available
on the WWW at http://www.wac.uct.ac.za.
CALL FOR PAPERS: The 84TH meeting of the
Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History will
be held October 6-10, 1999, in Detroit, MI. Abstracts and one-page
CVs should be sent to: Dr. Jacob Gordon and Dr. William Tuttle,
Jr., 1028 Dole Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.
Top of Page
Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress
of Freedom, Kathleen Deagan & Darcie MacMahon, University
of Florida Press/Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville,
1995. 54 pp. Plates, index.
Jeanne A. Ward, Applied Archaeology and History Associates,
This volume presents the story of the many
freed and escaped blacks that inhabited a small, Spanish-sanctioned,
outpost north of St. Augustine more than 250 years ago. Very detailed
historic research is combined with the results of test excavations
at the site of the second Fort Mose. The volume is lavishly illustrated
and written for a general audience.
As the presentation of a traveling museum
exhibit in text form, the volume is divided into many short sections,
each detailing particular aspects of the history of African-Americans
in the Spanish colonies. The book begins with sections detailing
the period prior to the establishment of the fort. These sections
include: "Spanish Sanctuary," "African Origins,"
"Africa and Iberia: Precedents of American Slavery,"
"Slavery in Iberia After the Moors," "Coming to
America: Africans in the Early Spanish Colonies," "Slaves
of Disease: Victims of Health," "Black Explorers and
Conquistadors," "Palenques and Cimarrones: Black and
Red Resistance on the Spanish Frontier," "A New Social
Order," "African People in the Colonial Southeast,"
"Neighbors to the North: The Black Community in South Carolina,"
and "'Giving Liberty to All.'" Through the extensive
use of historic records, including numerous illustrations and
paintings from the period, and photographs of appropriate items
from museum collections, these initial sections depict the active
and vital role played by African-Americans in the early history
of Spain and the Spanish colonies.
The volume then moves on to the history
of the establishment of Fort Mose. In "The Establishment
of Mose: A Fortress of Freedom" we learn that there were
two Fort Moses. The first fort was established in late 1738 after
more than 100 African fugitives reach St. Augustine. This fort
and an adjacent community, Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose,
were built about two miles north of St. Augustine. As word of
Fort Mose spread it came to represent freedom to the more than
40,000 slaves in South Carolina and the Spanish were blamed for
the Stono Rebellion of 1739. For the Spanish, the fort represented
a vital defense as the fugitives there knew the region well and
would fight to the death if invaded from the north.
The first Fort Mose was destroyed in 1740
when English forces attacked St. Augustine. In Urban Interlude,
1740 - 1752 we learn that all of the inhabitants reached the safety
of the city where they resided for the next twelve years. "Fort
Mose Resurrected" presents the rebuilding of the town and
fort in a slightly different location in 1752. The former residents,
by then used to the city, reluctantly moved back This section
includes extensive records and maps of this second fort as well
as artifacts from recent archaeological excavation there.
Again, based primarily on documentary sources
but augmented by archaeological data, descriptions of the lives
of the residents of Fort Mose are explored in sections concerning
"Black Militia in the Spanish Colonies," "Life
at Mose: A Cultural Crossroad," "Home and Family,"
"The Mose Family Tree," "Daily Bread," "African
Cowboys on the Spanish Frontier," and "Catholic Converts."
In the section titled "Abandonment and Decline" we learn
that this second fort was occupied for eleven years. Fort Mose
was abandoned in 1763 when Florida became an English colony.
The Search for a Lost Fort describes the
methods used to locate the first Fort Mose (now underwater in
a marsh) and to locate and investigate the second Fort Mose (now
an island). The actual excavations themselves were confined to
a number of small trenches placed to identify potential structural
components of the fort. Because the fort is not in any immediate
danger, this limited excavation was adequate to answer the immediate
questions of location and date as well as providing other information
concerning lifeways and subsistence activities.
Several sections address the methods by
which the Fort was documented. "A Thin Slice of Time"
interprets the site's stratigraphy. "Reconstructing the Food
of the Past" explains floral and faunal analysis, and food
preparation. "Bits and Pieces of History" presents photographs
of some of the artifacts, conservation techniques, and the final
The volume presents a lively, detailed,
positive interpretation of the lives of Africans in the Spanish
Colonies. It is very well-suited to a general audience, but also
presents information of interest to a professional reader.
Smashing Pots: Feats of Clay from Africa,
Nigel Barley, British Museum Press (distributed in the U.S. by
the Smithsonian Institution Press), London, 1994. 168 pp. Plates,
foreword, notes, bibliography, index.
John P. McCarthy Greenhorne & O'Mara,
Inc. Greenbelt, MD
This is a volume of interest to any archaeologist
who has even a passing interest in Colonoware or indigenous ceramic
traditons. Barley, Assistant Keeper (Curator) in the Department
of Ethnography at the British Museum, has produced a survey of
the role of pottery in traditional and modern Africa, the technologies
used in its production, and the aesthetic effects it achieves.
This is a very well illustrated volume (125
plates), and the accompanying text is well-researched and substantive.
Barley draws mostly on the collections of the British Museum,
whose considerable holdings still represent a patchy archive.
Noting the limitations of trying to address a single aspect of
the culture of a vast and ethnographically diverse continent,
wherever possible his discussion links specific examples to specific
Taking an analytical lead from the archaeological
literature on ceramics, Barley considers pots as conservative
and passive bearers of cultural meanings, associated with women
(while metals are innovative and associated with men). Beyond
their everyday functions, Barley considers aesthetic, gender roles,
power relations, and models of the human body, the seasons of
the year, and procreation and reincarnation in ceramic creation
and use. Most interesting is his assertion that the importance
of pots in Africa derives from a concern with "non-material
forces" that can only act through localization in a material
object that serves to contain or direct the force (p. 151).
Top of Page
Slavery in Early South Carolina
Natalie P. Adams, New South Associates,
Inc., Columbia, SC
The Institute of Southern Studies (ISS)
at the University of South Carolina recently hosted a conference
entitled "Slavery in Early South Carolina". The participants
were almost all historians, but included an archaeologist and
a couple of folklorists.
The conference started with silver jubilee
recognition of Peter Wood's Black Majority, published 25 years
ago. Philip Morgan's new book Slave Counterpoint was also discussed.
Morgan compares the Tidewater and Lowcountry plantation systems,
economies, and societies.
Later the first day, papers were presented
by Leland Ferguson and Mary Gavin on aspects of the convergence
of the various cultures present in colonial South Carolina. Ferguson's
paper presented some of his changing ideas about the functions
of colonoware bowls, while Gavin's paper focused on African-American
medicinal healing. Another session discussed the "voices
of slavery" which presented how slave narratives of events
were presented by the planter class to the larger community. Papers
were presented by Vin Carretta and Robert Olwell.
The morning on the second day started with
a session entitled "Making a Slave Society". Cara Anzilotti
presented a paper on white women and slave ownership, Gary Hewitt
on pro- and anti-slavery in early South Carolina, and Jennifer
Morgan on reproducing slavery in colonial South Carolina. One
of my favorite sessions was entitled "Labor in the Lowcountry"
which discussed the knowledge system of rice agriculture in West
Africa and in South Carolina. Unfortunately, due to time constraints,
Judith Carney was only able to deliver about two thirds of her
paper on the subject. Max Edelson's paper was entitled "'The
Planter Stock': Employing Slave Labor in the Colonial Lowcountry."
Of particular interest was his idea that planters were constantly
trying and constantly failing to replace the task system with
a system of gang labor since it did not fit well with agricultural
staples other than rice. Virginia Jelatis also presented her dissertation
research on the culture of indigo and how it interfaced with rice
agriculture grown on the same plantation.
The afternoon session was devoted to the
Revolutionary Period and beyond with presentations by Stan Deaton,
Daniel Littlefield, and James McMillin. Deaton's paper was on
slavery and white anxiety in post-Revolutionary South Carolina,
Littlefield's paper was entitled "Henry Laurens, the Revolutionary
Generation, and Slavery", and McMillan discussed the African-American
"Ellis Island" of South Carolina - Sullivan's Island.
Unfortunately, the conference was not well-advertised.
Similar conferences have been sponsored by ISS during Black History
month in the past, and those who may be interested should get
on their mailing list. Contact ISS by phone at (803) 777-2341,
or by mail: The Institute for Southern Studies, Gambrell Hall,
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. http://
Top of Page
P. McCarthy, Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc., 9001 Edmonston Road,
Greenbelt, MD 20770 (301) 220-1876
Assistant Editor: Paul
Mullins, Anthropology Program, George Mason University, MSN-3G5,
Fairfax, VA 22030
Book Reviews: This
could be YOU! Contact John McCarthy if interested.
McDavid, 1406 Sul Ross, Houston, TX 77007
Garmon, Public Archaeology Laboratory, Inc., 210 Lonsdale Avenue,
Pawtucket, RI 02860 (401) 728-8780
Heath, The Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest, P. O. Box
419, Forest, VA 24551
W. Joseph, New South Associates, Inc. 6150 East Ponce de Leon
Ave., Stone Mountain, GA 30083 (770) 498-4155
Farnsworth, Dept. of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Emerson, Anthropology Department, Southern Illinois University,
Edwardsville, IL 62026 (618) 692-5689
Mid-South/So. Plains: Leslie "Skip" Stewart-Abernathy, Arkansas
Archaeological Survey, P. O. Box 8706 AKU, Russellville, AK 72801
Wilkie, Anthropology Department, University of California, Berkeley,
Subscriptions, by the calendar year, are:
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Top of Page
Published in cooperation with the
Council for Maryland Archaeology: ISBN 1060-0671
Electronic version compiled by Thomas
R. Wheaton, New South Associates, Inc.
©2005 African Diaspora Archaeology Network
Please send comments or questions to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Last updated: April 16, 2005