African Diaspora Archaeology Network title image

world map menu

African-American Archaeology:
CRM Reports

dividing bar


Overview

Many archaeological sites related to aspects of African-American heritage have been investigated by Cultural Resource Management (CRM) firms, some of which are commercial entities and some of which are affiliated with universities. These CRM firms typically submit reports of their findings to the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), or an equivalent State or federal agency, in the area in which the research and excavations were conducted. In turn, some (but not all) SHPO offices and federal agencies have supplied lists of these reports to the National Park Service (NPS) for inclusion in a searchable database. To obtain the most complete list of such reports, one would also need to contact all of the SHPO offices and all of the CRM organizations.

I have compiled an initial bibliography of such CRM reports by conducting "keyword" searches in October 2005 using the Reports Module of the National Archaeological Database (NADB), which was last updated in August 2004. That bibliography contains 529 entries. The NADB does not provide abstracts for each entry, so it is difficult to ascertain the degree of relevance and focus of each report reflected in a database entry.

I have also contacted numerous members of the CRM community to request that they send me lists of reports by their firms that they know were addressed to subjects of African-American heritage. I hope to make information on such reports related to African-American archaeology more accessible for researchers -- particularly academic researchers who often find this "gray literature" inaccessible -- by creating a series of bibliographies. Set forth below are lists of relevant reports provided to me thus far by archaeologists in CRM firms or related organizations. These reports are listed below under headings that provide the name of the person and organization that provided the information, and the headings are sorted in alphabetic order by organization names.

You can search within the report listings displayed here by using the "search on page" or "find" functions of your internet browser. For example, if you are interested in any reports from within the area of a particular State, you can search this list by that State's name and postal abbreviation (e.g., "Alabama" and "AL").

Many thanks to those members of the CRM community who have taken time to respond and supplied the report listings provided below. If you are a member of a CRM firm or related organization and can provide a comparable listing of the work conducted by or submitted to your organization on sites related to African-American heritage, please send me your report information and I will add it to this bibliography. At a later stage, I will consolidate this list with the bibliography based on NADB searches to create one list of relevant reports.



AF Consultants
6546 Haley Drive
Columbia SC 29206
803-787-4169
L. M. Drucker, Ph.D., RPA

Lesley M. Drucker. 1991. Archaeological Inventory Survey of US Department of Agriculture Vegetable Laboratory Site, Charleston County, SC. Sirrine Environmental Consultants. January 1991. iv + 53 pp., 7 figs., 4 tables, Report No. 151.

Mark D. Groover, Lesley M. Drucker. 1991. Archaeological and Historical Investigation of 38CH1200 and 38CH1199, USDA Vegetable Laboratory, Supplemental Report: Intensive Survey. USDA. May 1991. v + 25 pp., 16 figs., 25 tables, 4 appendices, Report No. 152.



Brockington and Associates, Inc.
6611 Bay Circle, Suite 220
Norcross, Georgia 30071
770-662-5807
Scott Butler, RPA, Vice President

Poplin, Eric and Paul Brockington.1988. Midway: Archaeological Profile of a Nineteenth Century Rice Plantation on Waccamaw Neck (Georgetown County, SC). Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Poplin, Eric and Paul Brockington. 1989. True Blue Plantation: Archaeological Data Recovery at a Waccamaw Neck Rice Plantation (Georgetown County, SC).

Abbott, Lee and Paul Brockington. 1989. Data Recovery at 38CH940 (Historic Locus), Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Kennedy, Kennedy, Chris Espenshade and Ramona Grunden. 1991. Archaeological Investigation of Two Turn-of-the-Century Farmsteads (38BU966 and 38BU967), Hilton Head Island, South Carolina (Beaufort County). Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Chris Espenshade and Ramona Grunden. 1991. Contraband, Refugee, and Freedman: Archaeological Investigations of the Western Fringe of Mitchellville, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina (Beaufort County). Brockington and Associates, Inc.

James Legg, Chris Espenshade, and Linda Snyder. 1991. Camp Baird: Archaeological and Historical Investigation of the Autumn 1864 Camp of the 32nd US Colored Infantry, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina (Beaufort County). Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Poplin, Eric and M. Scardaville. 1991. Archaeological Data Recovery at Long Point Plantation (38CH321), Mark Clark Expressway (I-526), Charleston County, South Carolina.

Gardner, Jeffrey. 1992. Historic Adaptations Through Time: Archaeologial Testing of Five Sites in the Francis Marion National Forest, Berekeley and Charleston Counties, South Carolina. Francis Marion and Sumter National Forests Cultural Resources Management Report 91-33. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Gardner, Jeff and Eric Poplin. 1992. Wappoo Plantation (38CH1199/1200): Data Recoveryat an Eighteenth Century Stono River Plantation in Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Jones, David, Marian Roberts, Chris Espenshade, Eric Poplin, and Connie Huddleson. 1993. Investigation of a Slave Row at Spanish Wells Plantation: Archaeological Data Recovery at 38BU869, Spanish Pointe, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina (Beaufort County). Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Kennedy, Linda Marian Roberts, and Chris Espenshade. 1993. Archaeological Data Recovery at the River Club (38BU880), Hilton Head Island, South Carolina: A Study in the Late Eighteenth/Early Nineteenth Century African American Lifeways (Beaufort County).

Stine, Linda, Paul Brockington, and Connie Huddleston. 1994. Searching for the Slave Village at Snee Farm Plantation: The 1987 Investigations (Charleston County, SC). Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Kennedy, Linda, Marian Roberts, and Christopher Espenshade. 1994. Archaeological Data Recovery at Colleton River Plantation (38BU647), Beaufort County, South Carolina: A Study of an Early Nineteenth Century Slave Settlement. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Eubanks, Elsie, Chris Espenshade, Marian Roberts, and Linda Kennedy. 1994. Data Recovery Investigation of 38BU791, Bonny Shore Save Row, Spring Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Rust, Tina, Marian.Roberts, Linda Kennedy and Eric Poplin. 1995. Archaeological Data Recovery at 38CH1078 in Brickyard Plantation, Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Roberts, Marian, Connie Huddleston, Virginia Markham, and Paul Brockington. 1996. Data Recovery Excavations at 38BU1419: A Historic Site on Belfair Plantation, Beaufort County, South Carolina.

Rust, Tina. Ralph Bailey, and Eric Poplin. 2000. Archaeological Data Recovery at 38CH1402 and 38CH1405, Park West Tract, Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Poplin, Eric. 2001. Archaeological Data Recovery Investigations at 38BK202, Berkeley County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Reid, Dawn, Bruce Harvey, J. Olsen, Alex Sweeney, Connie Huddleston, and S. Ritter. 2002. An Eighteenth Century Settlement on he Okatie River: Data Recovery at 38BU1650, Beaufort County South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Fletcher, Josh, Bruce Harvey, and Eric Poplin. 2002. Archaeological Data Recovery at 38CH1292, Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Whitley, Thomas, Connie Huddleston, Jennifer Webber, and Dea Mozingo. 2003. Archaeological Data Recovery at Silk Hope Plantation, Bryan County, Georgia. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Butler, Scott, Joseph Charles, Connie Huddleston, Heather Mauldin, Whitney Olvey, Jen Webber. 2003. Archaeological Data Recovery at Dublin/Richmond Plantation, Bryan County, Georgia. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Whitley, Thomas, Connie Huddleston, Jennifer Webber, and Dea Mozingo. 2003. Archaeological Data Recovery at Cherry Hill Plantation, Bryan County, Georgia. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Poplin, Carol, Tina Rust, and Ralph Bailey. 2003. Archaeological Data Recovery at Site 38CH1511, The Ellis Tract, Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Poplin, Eric, Bruce Harvey, Connie Huddleson, Catherine Runyan, and Patrick Severts. 2004. Archaeological Investigation of Schieveling Plantation (38CH691), Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Poplin, Carol and Ralph Bailey. 2004. Archaeological Data Recovery at 38CH1473, A Christ Church Parish Slave Row, Charleston County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Sipes Eric. 2005. Data Recovery Investigations at Waterford Plantation (38GE550), Georgetown County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Fletcher, Josh. 2005. "Meet O Lord, On the Milk-White Horse:" Archaeological Data Recovery at Rephraim Plantation, Sites 38BU1385 and 38BU1803, Palmetto Bluff, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Brockington and Associates, Inc.

Butler, Scott. 2005. Phase III Data Recovery Excavations at St. Anne's Slave Settlement (9GN197) Glynn County, Georgia. Brockington and Associates, Inc.



Cincinnati Museum Center
1301 Western Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio 45203
513-455-7161
Bob Genheimer
George Rieveschl Curator of Archaeology

Genheimer, Robert A. 2001. A Report on Preliminary Archaeological Testing and an Archaeological Development Plan for the John P. Parker House and Foundry Site, Ripley, Ohio. Prepared for the John P. Parker Historical Society, Ripley, Ohio, and the National Park Service, Midwest Region, Omaha, Nebraska. Prepared by the Cincinnati Museum Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Parker, an African American, operated a successful iron foundry before and after the Civil War, and is generally regarded as the number one conductor on the Underground Railroad leading up to the Civil War. He rescued hundreds, if not more than a thousand, slaves from Kentucky. Ripley was an abolitionist community, and is most famous for the Rankin House, a prominent Underground Railroad stop.)



Coastal Carolina Research, Inc.
Tarboro, North Carolina.
252-641-1444
Loretta Lautzenheiser, RPA

Bamann, S. E., P. Samford, B. Hall, M. D. Scholl, M. Tutwiler, and L. Lautzenheiser. 2005. Archaeological Data Recovery at Site 44YO1028 Camp Peary, York County, Virginia. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro. (This excavation recovered a substantial amount of colonoware and evidence of production on site.)

Lautzenheiser, L. and P. Samford. 1996. Limited Archaeological Testing Purvis Slave House 31MT164 Martin County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro.

Madsen, A. D. and L. Lautzenheiser. 2002. The Halifax Road and Hope Plantation: An Archaeological Investigation to Determine the Influence of Transportation on the Slave Community of the Antebellum South. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro.

Lautzenheiser, L., P. Samford, J. D. Nash, M. A. Holm, and T. Hargrove. 1998. "I Was Moved of the Lord to Go to Carolina . . ." Data Recovery at Eden House Site 31BR52 Bertie County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro. (Several root cellars suggested that the ca. 1660 house had been converted to slave quarters when newer houses were built at the site)

Lautzenheiser, L. and T. Hargrove. 1991. ". . . The Bright and Glittering Sand" Archaeological Survey and Test Excavations, Site 31DR 61 Roanoke Island, Dare County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro. (Research and discussion on the Freedman's colony on Roanoke Island)

Lautzenheiser, L., M. A. Holm, J. M. Eastman, and D. O'Brien. 1995. Archaeological Survey Proposed Treated Wastewater Holding Ponds Federal Paper Board Riegelwood Operations Riegelwood Columbus County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro.

Lautzenheiser, L., T. Hargrove, J. M. Eastman, P. Samford, J. Carter, and M. A. Holm. 1997. Archaeological Testing Neils Eddy Tract International Paper Riegelwood Operations Riegelwood Columbus County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro. (Testing of plantation house and probable slave quarters).

Brady, E. M. and L. Lautzenheiser. 1998. Archaeological Data Recovery Site 31DR76, the Bowser Homestead Dare County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro. (location of a supposed freedman's house).

Lautzenheiser, L. 1994. Archaeological Survey of Edenton Bay, Hayes Plantation, Edenton, North Carolina. Ms. on file, Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., Tarboro. (The survey located a row of probable slave houses associated with the National Landmark Hayes Plantation).



Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.
Lexington, Kentucky.
859-252-4737
Jennifer L. Barber, Principal Investigator

One site that is known to be linked to African Americans in Colorado is the town site of Dearfield, settled in northeastern Colorado in the early 1900s as an African American colony. While not much remains of the town, there are a few buildings partially standing and several foundations still present; the town site is listed on the National Register.

Noisat, Brad. 2003. An Archaeological Assessment of the Dearfield Site, Weld County, Colorado. Niwot Archeological Consultants, Inc., for the Colorado State Historical Fund.

Slessman, Scott A. 1998. Archaeological Inventory of U.S. Highway 34 in the Dearfield Vicinity, Weld County, Colorado (NH 0341-046). Centennial Archaeology, Inc., for the Colorado Department of Transportation.

Western Public History Associates. 1994. Dearfield, Colorado a Survey of Homesteading and Town Development (SHF #93-2-60). Western Public History Associates for the Colorado State Historic Fund.

Faberson, Tanya A. 2007. Erstwhile Days along Pearl and Lafayette: Physical Change in a Louisville Neighborhood, 18501860. Survey and Data Recovery Results for Sites 15Jf716, 15Jf717, and 15Jf718 in the I-65 Accelerated Section of the Louisville Southern Indiana Ohio River Bridges Project, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky (Item No. 5-118.00). Contract Publication Series 06-201. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington, Kentucky. Abstract: Sites 15Jf717 and 15Jf718 in downtown Louisville, Kentucky, were once part of a historic neighborhood that was first inhabited by working-class and professional white residents in the mid-nineteenth century. Over the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this neighborhood became primarily occupied by the working classes, both white -- American-born and European immigrants -- and African American. By the early twentieth century, the neighborhood became occupied primarily by working-class African Americans. Class and ethno-racial identity shaped many aspects of the neighborhood over time, and as a result, the community was often marginalized by the city government.

Jennifer L. Barber; Jessica L. Allgood; R. Berle Clay; Grant L. Day; E. Brooke Hamby; James T. Kirkwood; William B. Lees; Trina C. Maples; Jeffrey G. Mauck; Henry S. McKelway; Lori O'Connor; and Michael W. Tuma. 2004. Phase III Excavations at The Hamlet Of Monterey, Site 15Bb112, Bourbon County, Kentucky (Item No. 7-163.22). Contract Publication Series 04-011a-e. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington, Kentucky. Abstract: During 1998, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., personnel completed phase II and III investigations at the Hamlet of Monterey (15Bb112) along the proposed U.S. 27/68 upgrade in Bourbon County, Kentucky, at the request of the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. Using original historical log boundaries, five land parcels were identified, Buildings included four main domestic residences, a tollhouse, a blacksmith shop, a wool carding shop, and the African Methodist Episcopal Church, as well as other outbuildings, wells, and privies. Archival evidence indicates that Monterey was first occupied around the 1820s and continued to thrive, reaching a peak between the 1850s and 1880s before its gradual demise, which concluded by the 1940s. For the majority of Monterey's existence, it was an integrated community, inhabited first by upwardly mobile middle class whites, then by middle to lower class whites and at least one free African American, and then by poor middle class whites and emancipated African Americans. The people who lived in Monterey were laborers and artisans, shopkeepers and small businessmen, and tenants and landlords.

Faberson, Tanya A. 2006. An Archival History of the Proposed Newtown Pike Extension Small Area Development Plan, City of Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky (Item No. 7-593): Davis Bottoms: Residential Transformations of a Neighborhood on the Periphery, Vol. 1. Contract Publication Series 06-040, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington, Kentucky. Abstract: Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., personnel conducted a phase I survey for the proposed Small Area Development in Davistown (also known as Davis Bottoms) for the Newtown Pike Extension in the city of Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky. Additional archival work was then recommended to facilitate development of a data recovery plan to mitigate the impacts to the site by the proposed neighborhood redevelopment. As a part of this additional archival research, historic background data was gathered to further elucidate the culture history of the Davis Bottoms community. This primary and secondary historic research demonstrated that the community was not developed until after 1867, with the majority of residential development occurring between 1880 and 1930. A review of Sanborn insurance maps and other historic atlases indicated that there was a gradual increase in the number of buildings over time, but that by circa 1934, the vast majority of structures had been completed. The late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century history of Davis Bottoms can be characterized as a community of African-American residences and commercial buildings. As the twentieth-century progressed, Davis Bottoms became an integrated neighborhood of whites and African-Americans, and today there are more white residents in the community than African-Americans.

Beginning in 1999 Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. personnel began excavations on four sites associated with salt manufacture in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia The Marmet Lock Replacement Project involves the expansion of a lock on the Kanawha River, up river from the city of Charleston, West Virginia. Located in the heart of the "Chemical Valley" an industrialized coal mining, and chemical production area, this project is largely in response to heavy coal barge traffic on the Kanawha River. While the lock expansion looks to the future of industry in the Kanawha Valley, the area of the expansion is deeply rooted in the region's industrial heritage. Located within the lock replacement area were the physical plants of three salt furnaces owned by John Reynolds, a Kanawha Valley pioneer, legislator, and salt manufacturer, the Reynolds family home and associated features including the family cemetery, and a site of a slave cabin owned by the Reynolds, on approximately 40 acres of undeveloped land in the heavily industrialized and urban Kanawha Valley. This provided a unique opportunity to examine nearly the entire salt making enterprise, with the only exception being the coal mines, which are located outside the project area. Excavations of the historic component of the Willow Bluff site (46KA352) provided an opportunity to examine an assemblage that dated prior to the American Civil War. Historical research suggested that there were several possible occupants of this site, including early settlers such as John Morris or John Reynolds, or other members of the Reynolds family including their enslaved work force. Artifacts from the site suggested that the primary occupation of the site occurred during the 1820-1840 time period, and that the most likely occupants were enslaved laborers. John Reynolds owned as many as 10 slaves in 1820, with varying numbers after that time. His sons also owned enslaved laborers and were salt manufacturers in the Burning Springs Branch area. Archeologically, several lines of evidence point to this site having a slave occupation. Evidence includes the lack of substantial architectural features at the site suggesting a log house rather than a more substantial frame structure documented for the Reynolds family. The presence of lower cost ceramics, such as edge decorated plates and redware plates and copies of refined earthenware bowls, lower status cuts of meat such as the heads and lower limbs of hogs, and possible "Africanisms" including pierced silver coins, and pierced metal objects.

Updike, William D. 1999. Historic Period Research for the Marmet Lock and Dam Replacement Project, Lower Belle, Kanawha County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archaeologist 51(1&2): 41-54.

Updike, William D. contributions by Flora Church and Annette Erickson. 2002. Archaeological Data Recovery for the African-American Slave Component of the Willow Bluff Site, (46Ka352), Located Within the Marmet Lock Replacement Project, Kanawha County, West Virginia. Contract Publication Series WV02-19. Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Hurricane, West Virginia.



Georgia Department of Transportation
Atlanta, GA 30336
404-699-4406
Eric A. Duff

Elliott, Daniel T., and Rita F. Elliott. 2002. Life in the Queensborough Township: Data Recovery at Hannah's Quarter, Site 9Jf195, Jefferson County, Georgia. Prepared for the Georgia Department of Transportation by Southern Research, Historic Preservation Consultants, Wllerslie, Georgia.



Independent Archaeological Consulting, LLC
Portsmouth, New Hampshire

Ellen Marlatt

Marlatt, Ellen, Kathleen Wheeler, and Shannon Provost. 2005. Archaeological Excavations at the Portsmouth African Burial Ground (27-RK-384), Chestnut and Court Streets, Portsmouth (Rockingham County), New Hampshire. October 2003. Preliminary report prepared by Independent Archaeological Consulting, LLC, Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

Wheeler, Kathleen and Ellen Marlatt. 2001. Results of Phase I Archaeological Survey at the Harold Tyler Farm (Roberts Cellarhole Site ME-219-002) Jonesboro, Washington County, Maine. Report prepared by Independent Archaeological Consulting, LLC, Portsmouth, New Hampshire.



Louis Berger Group, Inc.
203 E. Cary Street, Suite 100
Richmond, VA 23219
804-225-0348
Kay Simpson, Ph.D., Vice President

John Eddins and Phillip Pendleton. 1997. Phase II Archaeological Resource Investigations, Site 44iw173, Route 603, Isle of Wight County, Virginia. Prepared for the Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, by Louis Berger and Associates, Inc. (now The Louis Berger Group, Inc.). Richmond.

Todd M. Ahlman and Debra A. McClane. 2002. Archaeological Data Recovery at Site 44fx2107 Associated with the Proposed Route 123 Improvements, Fairfax County, Virginia. Prepared for Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, by The Louis Berger Group, Inc., Richmond, Virginia.

Patrick L. O'Neill and Charles LeeDecker. 2005. Archeological Investigations at Arlington House (44ar17), the Robert E. Lee Memorial Repair and Rehabilitation of the Mansion and Slave Quarters George Washington Memorial Parkway. Final Report. Contract No. C300099063, Work Order No. 8. Prepared for National Park Service, National Capital Region, Washington, D.C. by the Louis Berger Group, Inc.

John T. Eddins, Megan Rupnik, John Mullin, and Eric Voigt. 2005. Cemetery Testing, Guinea Road Cemetery (Site 44FX1664), Route 236 (Little River Turnpike), Fairfax County, Virginia. Prepared for Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, by The Louis Berger Group, Inc., Richmond, Virginia.

Deiber, Camilla R. 2005 (in production). History of African-Americans at the 13th Cantonment, Camp Dodge, Johnston, Iowa. Prepared for the Iowa Army National Guard, by The Louis Berger Group, Inc., Marion.



New South Associates
6150 East Ponce de Leon Avenue
Stone Mountain, GA 30083
(770) 498-4155
J. W. Joseph, Ph.D., and Natalie Adams

Wheaton, Thomas R., Jr. and Mary Beth Reed (principal authors). 1989. James City: An African American Urban Village. Report submitted to Bridgepointe, Inc.

Mary Beth Reed (with contributions). 1989. "More Than What We Had": An Architectural and Historical Documentation of the Village Creek Project Neighborhoods, Birmingham, Alabama. Report submitted to the Mobile Corps of Engineers.

Wheaton, Thomas R., Jr. 1990. Phase II Cultural Resource Assessment: Blue Water Historic Site, 12VAm3-180, St. Thomas, U. S. V. I. Report submitted to the Virgin Islands Housing and Finance Authority.

Joseph, J. W. and Mary Beth Reed. 1991. An Inventory of Archeological Resources and Recommended Preservation and Research Plan, Mcleod Plantation, James Island, South Carolina. Report submitted to Jaeger/Pyburn.

Joseph, J. W. 1991. "And They Went Down Both Into the Water:" Archeological Data Recovery of the Riverfront Augusta Site, 9Ri165. Report submitted to the City of Augusta, Office of Economic Development.

Wheaton, Thomas R. and Mary Beth Reed. 1994. The "Tabby Ruin Site", Laurel Bay Housing Area, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina. Report submitted to Gulf Engineers, Metairie, Louisiana.

Raymer, Leslie E. 1995. Macroplant Remains from the Yard Cabin, South Cabin, and Cabin 3 West: A Study in African American Subsistence at the Hermitage, Hermitage, Tennessee. Report submitted to the Hermitage, Hermitage, Tennessee.

Joseph, J. W., Theresa M. Hamby, Lotta A. C. Danielsson, Mary Beth Reed, Lisa D. O'Steen, Leslie E. Raymer, Thad S. Murphy, and Nancy Parrish. 1995. Between Conception and the Saints: Archaeological and Historical Studies of Late Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Century Urban Life in Mobile, Alabama. Report submitted to the General Services Administration.

Raymer, Leslie E. 1996. Macroplant Remains from Six Nineteenth-Century Cabins at the Hermitage, Tennessee: A Study of Antebellum and Early Emancipation Period African American Subsistence Patterns. Report submitted to the Hermitage, Hermitage, Tennessee.

Raymer, Leslie E. 1996. Macroplant Remains from the Jefferson's Poplar Forest Slave Quarter: A Study of African American Subsistence Practices. Report prepared for the Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest.

Adams, Natalie P. 1998. Archaeological Investigations at the Neale Plantation (31Cb110), Columbus County, North Carolina. Report submitted to International Paper.

Crist, Thomas A. Crist, William R. Henry, Reginald H. Pitts, Wade P. Catts, J. W. Joseph, Alex Caton, Arthur Washburn, and Sean Norris. 2000. With Death Came Liberty: The History and Archaeology of the Sam Goode Cemetery, Mecklenburg County, Virginia. Report submitted to the US Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District.

Botwick, Brad and Mark Finlay. 2000. Phase I Historical and Archaeological Survey Savannah and Ogeechee Canal City of Savannah, Chatham County, Georgia. Report submitted to Jo Hickson, ASLA.

Port, David E. 2002. An African-American Presence: Archaeological Investigations at the 1818 Hickman Log Cabin and the Cook's House at Pond Spring Plantation (1LA663), Lawrence County, Alabama. Report submitted to the Office of Jack Pyburn, Architect, Atlanta, GA.

Botwick, Brad and Jecyn Bremer. 2002. Cultural Resources Survey, Virginia Key Environmental Restoration Project City of Miami, Dade County, Florida. Report submitted to US Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District.

Port, David E. 2002. Report of the Archaeological Evaluations of the 1.4-Acre Tract South of the Wheeler Cemetery, of the Former Slave and Later Tenant Farmers' Village, and of the 1850s Log Cabin Kitchen and Residence at Pond Spring Plantation (1LA663), Lawrence County, Alabama. Report submitted to the Office of Jack Pyburn, Architect.

Raymer, Leslie E. 2004. "Of Sterling Worth and Good Qualities": Status and Domesticity in Nineteenth-Century Middle Class Charleston Archaeological Investigations at Site 38CH1871 Marlene & Nathan Addlestone Library College of Charleston. City of Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina. Report submitted to Enwright Associates.

Hamby, Theresa M., and J. W. Joseph, editors. 2004. A New Look at the Old City: Archaeological Excavations of the Charleston County Judicial Center Site (38CH1708), Charleston, South Carolina. Report submitted to Charleston County.

Adams, Natalie P., Mark Swanson, Leslie Raymer, Lisa D. O'Steen, J. W. Joseph and Arthur Cohen. 2004. The Free Cabin Site (9Ri1036): Archaeological Examination of a Postbellum Tenant Occupation near Hephzibah, Richmond County, Georgia. Report submitted to Earth Tech and GDOT.

Joseph, J. W., Summer Ciomek, Brad Botwick, Karen Serio, Mary Beth Reed, and Natalie Adams. 2004. Historic Resources Survey of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Report submitted to the South Carolina Department of Archives and History and Georgetown County Visitors Bureau.

Adams, Natalie P., Jennifer B. Langdale, Leslie Raymer, Mason Sheffield, and Kate McKinley. 2005. Archaeological Investigation at Yourhaney Plantation (38GE18), Yauhannah Bluff, Waccamaw Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown County, South Carolina. Report submitted to the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Adams, Natalie. 2008. Archaeological Identification of an Outbuilding at the McKee-Smalls House, Beaufort, South Carolina. New South Associates Technical Report.

Matternes, Hugh B. 2008. An Archaeological Examination of the Boundary Between the Bruce Street Cemetery and an Adjacent Parcel in the City of Lithonia, Georgia, DeKalb County, Georgia. New South Associates Technical Report.

Matternes, Hugh B. and Staci Richey. 2009. A Silent Choir Sings: Formal, Informal Cemeteries and the Old School Cemetery. Paper presented at the 2009 Society for Historical Archaeology Conference, Toronto, Canada. Proceedings from the 43nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Historical Archaeology.

Richey, Staci, Hugh B. Matternes, and J. W. Joseph. 2008. Old School Cemetery: Mapping, Documentation, Preservation and Interpretation of a Significant Historic African-American Site, Washington, Georgia. New South Technical Report.



New York State Education Department
Mark S. LoRusso

LoRusso, Mark S. The Betsey Prince Site: An Early Free Black Domestic Site on Long Island, in Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Domestic Site Archeology in New York State, edited by John P. Hart and Charles L. Fisher. New York State Museum Bulletin 495, The University of the State of New York and The New York State Education Department, Albany, 2000.

LoRusso, Mark S. A Cultural Resource Survey Report for Data Recovery Investigations of the Betsey Prince Site and the Prince-Miller Site: PIN 0327.67.121 and PIN 0327.78.101, NY Route 25A, Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, New York. Prepared for the New York State Department of Transportion by the New York State Museum Cultural Resources Survey Program, Albany, 1998.



Rivanna Archaeological Services, LLC
206 East Market Street, Suite C
Charlottesville, VA 22902
434-293-3108
Stephen M. Thompson, Ph.D., Principal

Stephen M. Thompson. 2005. A Phase I Archaeological Survey at Free State: An Historical African-American Rural Community in Albemarle County, Virginia. Report submitted by Rivanna Archaeological Services, LLC (Charlottesville, VA), to Stonehaus Development (Charlottesville, VA).



Spears Inc.
13858 S. Highway 170
West Fork, AR 72774
479-839-3663
Carol S. Spears, RPA

Spears, Carol S., Chris Branam, Christopher M. Page, Robin F. Bowers, Glenda Cade, Leslie Walker, and Robert H. Lafferty, III. 2005. Archeological Investigations at the Wolf House Site Volume III: Excavations Under the North Pen and Recommendations for Future Studies. Draft Report in Review.

Spears, Carol S. 2005. The Kitchen, Cook's Cabin, Slave Quarters, Barn or Stable, and other Historic Features in the Southeastern Yard of the Wolf House Site (3BA368), Chapter 5 in Archeological Investigations at the Wolf House Site (3BA368), by Robert H. Lafferty, Carol S. Spears, and Carol Ann Johnson. MCRA Report 2001-3. (SPEARS Project 143). (42 pages).

Johnson, Carol Ann and Carol S. Spears. 2005. The Wolf House: Brief Historical Overview, Chapter 2 in Archeological Investigations at the Wolf House Site (3BA368), by Robert H. Lafferty, Carol S. Spears, and Carol Ann Johnson. Report submitted to Jameson Architects, Little Rock MCRA Report 2001-3. (SPEARS Project 143). (29 pages).

Spears, Carol S. and Robert H. Lafferty III. 2005. Introduction and Evolution of the Wolf Site Structure: Summary and Recommendations. Chapters 1 and 6 in Archeological Investigations at the Wolf House Site (3BA368), by Robert H. Lafferty, Carol S. Spears, and Carol Ann Johnson. MCRA Report 2001-3. (SPEARS Project 143). (11 and 8 pages, repectively).

Santeford, Lawrence G. and Carol S. Spears. 1994. 3JE357: A 19th Century Site in Jefferson County, Arkansas. Submitted to Arkansas Highway & Transportation Department, Little Rock, Arkansas. SPEARS Project Report 83. (165 pages).



Texas Department of Transportation
Nancy Kenmotsu

Condon, Cynthia G., Joy L. Becker, Heather J. H. Edgar, Jame M. Davidson, Jeurena R. Hoffman, Patricia Kalima, Daniel Kysar, Susan Moorhead, Victoria M. Owens, and Keith Condon. 1998. Freedman's Cemetery, Site 41D316, Dallas, Texas, Assessments of Sex, Age at Death, Stature, and Date of Interment for Excavated Burials. Environmental Affairs Division, Archeology Studies Program, Report No. 9, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin.

Dockall, Helen D., Joseph F. Powell, and D. Gentry Steele. 1996. Home Hereafter: An Archaeological and Bioarcaeological Analysis of an Historic African-American Cemetery (41GV125). Center for Environmental Archaeology, Reports of Investigations No. 5, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Blake, Marie E. and Terri Myers. 1999. After Slavery: The Rubin Hancock Farmstead, 1880-1916, Travis County, Texas. Archeology Studies Program, Report 19, Environmental Affairs Division, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin.

Peter, Duane E., Marsha Prior, Melissa M. Green, Victoria G. Clow (editors). 2000. Freedman's Cemetery: A Legacy of a Pioneer Black Community in Dallas, Texas. Environmental Affairs Division, Archeology Studies Program, Report No. 21, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin. (2 vols.)



University of Arkansas and
NorthWest Arkansas Community College
Jamie C. Brandon

Beard, Lorna, Jerry Hilliard, and Glen Akridge. 2000. Historical and Chemical Traces of an Ozark Cemetery for Enslaved African-Americans: A Study of Silhouette Burials in Benton County, Arkansas. North American Archaeologist 21(4):323-349. Abstract: The identification of human graves in situations where there is little or no evidence of skeletal material or coffins has been a problem for archaeologists. In the spring of 1998, the Arkansas Archeological Survey was hired to find the location of the "lost" Anderson family slave cemetery (3BE0625) on property slated for a new airport. The location of the slave cemetery was only identifiable by three features of disturbed soil thought to be the grave-fill and the chemical remains of human burials. One feature contained a light colored stain identified as the archaeological phenomenon referred to as a ghost, silhouette, shadow, or degraded burial. This study examines several elements that previous investigations have suggested as reliable indicators for silhouette burials. Because of frequent inundation and the addition of phosphorus to the field as a fertilizer, only the ratio of Zn/Cu is indicative of possible human burial. Zn/Cu ratios show clearly elevated levels at burial depth in the suspected cemetery features relative to control samples.

Boudreaux, Jennifer Rebecca. 1999. Another Look at Cedar Grove (3LA97): A Re-Analysis of a Historic African-American Cemetery. Thesis, Master of Arts, Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas. 51 pages. Abstract: Using historical records and archaeological and osteological data, this research uses stature, histological, pathological, and demographic data to determine health, nutrition, and quality of life of the Cedar Grove (3LA0097) population, a historic African-American population from southwest Arkansas, throughout slavery, Reconstruction, and Post-Reconstruction.

Brandon, Jamie Chad. 2004. Van Winkle's Mill: Mountain Modernity, Cultural Memory and Historical Archaeology in the Arkansas Ozarks. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. 324 pages. Abstract: This dissertation includes an analysis of the role of popular culture in the formation of cultural memory, a landscape analysis of the mill community, an examination of symbolic consumption by the mill's African-American workers and a critique of effort to interpret the mill's history to popular audiences.

Brandon, Jamie C., James M. Davidson, and Jerry E. Hilliard. 2000. Preliminary Archeological Investigations at Van Winkle's Mill (3BE413), Beaver Lake State Park, Benton County, Arkansas: 1997-1999. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 99-05. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 83 pages, including appendices. Abstract: Archeological investigations at Van Winkle's Mill (3BE0413), a mid- to late nineteenth-century saw mill community in the Arkansas Ozarks, were undertaken sporadically between October 1997 and March 1999. These excavations were performed by the University of Arkansas at the Fayetteville Station of the Arkansas Archeological Survey as a professional courtesy to the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism -- specifically, to the management of Beaver Lake State Park, Benton County, Arkansas. Investigations include an extensive mapping project, limited testing and trenching at the site of mill-owner's house, extensive testing at the site of a suspected mill-worker's quarters and the confirmation of the existence of a nineteenth-century cemetery. This site shows great potential in furthering our understanding of nineteenth-century industrial enterprise in the Ozarks, the role of Peter Van Winkle (the mill-owner) in the history of Northwest Arkansas, and the lives of the mill workers (both black and white, enslaved and free) which made the mill possible. AMASDA Number: 4310.

Brandon, Jamie C., James M. Davidson, Jerry E. Hilliard, Jami J. Lockhart, George Sabo III, and Edward W. Tennant. 2003. Archeological Inventory and Testing of Cultural Resources at Van Winkle's Mill (3BE413) and Little Clifty Creek Shelter (3BE412), Beaver Lake, Benton County, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 03-04. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 82 pages, including appendices. Abstract: The Arkansas Archeological Survey Sponsored Research Program, in cooperation with the Little Rock District of the united states Crops of Engineer (SWL) and the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, conducted a cultural resource inventory and testing of selected archeological resources within the Van Hollow on Beaver Lake in Benton County, Arkansas. Fieldwork was conducted sporadically over a three-year period (June 2000 through October 2003) and a number of features associated with Van Winkle's Mill (3BE0413), a late nineteenth-century sawmill community were identified and investigated--including a Mill's blacksmith shop and portions of the mill proper. Nonintrusive, technologically were deployed along with traditional testing measures at several features. Additionally, test excavations were conducted at Little Clifty Creek Shelter (3BE0412), a small multi-component bluff shelter located within Van Hollow. These disparate data sets are tied back into the larger cultural landscape of Van Hollow and used to provide management information and interpretive material for the SWL and Beaver Lake State Park. AMASDA Number: 4760.

Brandon, Jamie, Jerry Hilliard, and James Davidson. 1999. Return to Van Hollow: 1999 Excavations at a Millworker Residence at the Van Winkle Sawmill, Benton County. Arkansas Archeological Society Field Notes [Fayetteville, Arkansas] 288 (May - June):12 - 13. 2 pages. Abstract: Archeological investigations are continuing at the developing Beaver Lake State Park in northwest Arkansas, where the UAF station of the Survey has been working at the Van Winkle site (3BE413), a mill complex situated in the narrow valley known as Van Hollow.

Brennan, Mary Z., and Leslie C. Walker. 2003. Excavating the Above Ground Cemetery: An Archaeological Account of the Hoover-Parker Boone Cemetery (3WA1053), An African-American Cemetery in Washington County, Arkansas. Presented at the Arkansas Archeological Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, September. Abstract: This report discussed the Hoover-Parker-Boone Cemetery (3WA1053) in Washington County. The cemetery dates roughly between 1865 and 1920. This site was mapped and documented during four days of fieldwork in February 2003. Jeane's Upland South cemetery type was used to analysis this cemetery. Information from the tombstones was collected, as well as descriptions of the stones. Appendices include detailed information including the height, width and thickness of the stones.

Buchner, C. Andrew. 1992. Archaeological Investigations at the Lewis Site (3LE266): A Twentieth-Century Black Owned Farmstead on the St. Francis Floodway, Lee County, Arkansas. Memphis, TN: Garrow & Associates, Inc. 70 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: In 1992, archeological testing was conducted at the Lewis Site (3LE0266), located on the St. Francis Floodway in Lee County, Arkansas. This report contains the results of a literature and records search, testing, and artifact analysis, with interpretations of the site based on the assemblage contents. The oral history of the site as recalled by the owner of the property is also presented, which provides supporing evidence for site interpretations, in addition to a wealth of knowledge concerning tenant lifeways and settlement patterns in the Cow Bayou area. AMASDA Number: 2022.

Cande, Kathleen H., Michael M. Evans, and Jared S. Pebworth. 1999. Mapping and Documentation of Three Historic African-American Cemeteries, Helena, Phillips County, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 99-03. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 25 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: The Arkansas Archeological Survey mapped and documented three historic African-American cemeteries in and near Helena, Philips County, Arkansas. They are the Dixon Cemetery (3PH0376), the Springlake Memorial Cemetery (3PH0377), and Saxon Cemetery (3PH0378). The cemeteries contain interments dating from the mid-nineteenth century; two of the cemeteries are still in use. Detailed plan and topographic maps were made of the cemeteries, and each legible grave marker was recorded. AMASDA Number: 4206.

Cande, Kathleen. 1996. A Cultural Resources Survey of the Proposed Waxhaws Senior Center and the Archibald Yell Homeplace (3WA981), City of Fayetteville, Washington County, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 952. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 31 pages, including appendices. Abstract: In 1996, a cultural resources survey of approximately 9 acres (3.6 ha) comprising a portion of Archibald Yell's farm, Waxhaws (3WA0981), in south Fayetteville, Washington County, Arkansas, was conducted. Investigations included pedestrian survey, excavation of screened shovel tests, and surface collection of areas to be affected by construction of the Waxhaws Community Senior Center. Results of the survey indicate that intact historic period (nineteenth century) deposits exist, and the site is considered eligible for nomination to the National Register under Criteria a, b, and d. Several prehistoric artifacts found during the survey are not considered to represent a significant occupation. Mitigation is recommended, including preparation of a detailed site map, additional documentary research, and test units in selected locations. AMASDA Number: 3570.

Cande, Kathleen H. 1993. Phase III Data Recovery Excavations at the Price Farmstead (3PP390) and Phase II Testing of an Alleged Slave Cemetery (Site 855.14) Within the Huckleberry Creek Impoundment Area, Pope County, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 870. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 79 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: In 1993, the Sponsored Research Program of the Arkansas Archeological Survey conducted Phase III archeological data recovery excavations at the Price Farmstead (3PP0390) and Phase II testing at an alleged slave cemetery (Temporary Site 855.14). Both sites will be inundated as a result of planned impoundment of Huckleberry Creek, near Dover, Pope County, Arkansas. Data recovery excavations and other archeological and archival investigations at the Price Farmstead were of sufficient intensity to mitigate the adverse impacts of reservoir impoundment. Phase II testing at an alleged slave cemetery revealed that no cultural materials of any kind are present. In the opinion of the Sponsored Research Program, no further archeological investigations are necessary at these two sites. Stakes have been placed around site 3PP0391, a historic cemetery, to indicate the area needed to protect the cemetery both during and after reservoir construction. AMASDA Number: 2551.

Cande, Kathleen H., and Jamie C. Brandon. 1999. An Old Washington for a New Millennium: Archeological Collections Management and Research Design for Old Washington Historic State Park, Hempstead County, Arkansas, 1980-1999. ANCRC Grant 99-001; AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 99-01. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 31 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: The antebellum town of Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas, has been preserved as a state park since 1973. Artifact collections resulting from nearly 20 years of archeological excavations within the town have yet to be systematically analyzed, synthesized, and written up. The purpose of this grant was to assemble and inventory more than 90,000 artifacts recovered from antebellum houseplaces and public buildings at Old Washington Historic State Park. Collections were sorted, repackaged, and reboxed into 261 polyethylene Rubbermaid brand storage boxes with lids. Each box was numbered and an inventory of its contents prepared. Several comprehensive finding aids have been compiled detailing the box location of various classes of artifacts by provenience, counts of artifacts from each provenience, and objects suitable for exhibit at the park. This report also contains a written synthesis of 20 years of archeological excavations and results of research, analysis of selected proveniences from the Sanders block, and presents research themes for future analyses.

Childress, Mitchell R. 1990. Analysis and Interpretation of Artifact Collections from Four Archaeological Sites Within the Country Club Gardens Permit Area, West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas. Memphis, TN: Garrow & Associates, Inc. 46 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: In 1990, controlled surface collection were made on four archeological sites (3CT0267, 3CT0268, 3CT0269, 3CT0270) in Crittenden County, Arkansas. A test unit was also excavated at one of the sites (3CT0267). The initial site identifications were made of the Memphis District Corps of Engineers. Garrow & Associates, Inc., was subsequently contracted to analyze the artifacts from the surface and subsurface contexts at the sites in order to determine their potential eligibility for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This report contains the results of the analysis, interpretations of the sites based on the assemblage content, and recommendations. AMASDA Number: 1638.

Coleman, Roger E. 1998. Archeological Investigation at the Epperson Farmstead Site 3MN383, Historic Component (Reading Version). 5 pages presented at the 40th Annual Caddo Conference, March. Abstract: Archeological investigations at Site 3MN383 were undertaken in 1995, in conjunction with the Arkansas Archeological Society fieldschool. Occupied from ca. 1855-1867 by a single family of the non-slave holding class, the site is an early Ouachita Mountain farmstead. Rural antebellum sites have received no attention in south Arkansas and comparatively little emphasis statewide. In concert with archival documentation, archeological data from 3MN383 reflect an economic profile that may be distinctive of yeoman farm occupation sites.

Cooper, Judy Hennessee, Eward Salo, Jacinthe Messier, and Steven M. Hunt. 2003. Phase I Cultural Resources Survey of the Dillard and Bois d'Arc Revetment Items, Miller, Lafayette, and Hempstead Counties, Arkansas. Miscellaneous Report of Investigations No. 226. Plano, TX: Geo-Marine, Inc. 90 pages plus appendices. Abstract: Geo-Marine, Inc. was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg District, to perform a cultural resources investigation for two planned revetments items along the Red River in Hempstead, Miller, and Lafayette counties, southwestern Arkansas. Two new historic sites were recorded, 3MI0420 and 3MI0421. 3MI0420 is not considered eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places due to extensive disturbance of the site. 3MI0421 is an African American Cemetery that is outside the Dillard Revetment area. However since it is considered potentially eligible for inclusion to the Register, additional investigations to examine the area for unmarked graves and to determine the cemetery boundary are recommended. AMASDA Number: 4435.

Davidson, James Michael. 1999. Freedman's Cemetery (1869-1907): A Chronological Reconstruction of an Excavated African-American Burial Ground, Dallas, Texas. Thesis, Master of Arts, Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas. 2 Volumes (599 pages). Abstract: This thesis documents the history and provides a burial chronology for the archeological investigation of Freedman's Cemetery, the principal burying ground for the African American community of Dallas, Texas, between its founding in 1869 and its forced closure in 1907. Between 1991 and 1994, archeologists working for the Texas Department of Transportation archeologically excavated an acre of the 4-acre site, exhuming 1150 burials (containing 1157 individuals). None of the graves were marked with dated tombstones, and so a burial chronology was necessitated. First, an entirely internal chronology was established, using specific artifacts as temporal diagnostics, cross-dating, stacked burials (i.e. superposition), as well as knowledge of land purchase and subsequent use (e.g. the spatial patterning of graves). The other dating schema made use of national trends in coffin hardware innovations and stylistic motifs, through an exhaustive study of coffin hardware catalogues, funeral trade journals, and all pertinent records of the United States Patent Office. Three major (and one minor) time periods were identified: the Early Period (1869-1884) (n=64 burials), the Middle Period (1885-1899) (n=170 burials), the "Pre-1900" period (1869-1899) (n=37 burials), and the Late Period (1900-1907) (n=878). Finally, for 801 burials within the Late Period, the estimated interment date range was further refined from an eight year interval to within a single year (e.g. Burial 32=1900).

DeBlack, Thomas A. 1995. A Garden in the Wilderness: The Johnsons and the Making of Lakeport Plantation, 1831-1876. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of History, University of Arkansas. 325 pages. Abstract: In the 1820s and 1830s, a group of settlers from Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and other southern states began to move into the vast and foreboding wilderness of the Arkansas delta. Some settled in the southeastern corner of the state in a place called Chicot County. In the years that followed, these hardy pioneers transformed the wilderness into a plantation kingdom of cotton and slaves.

Guendling, Randall L., Kathleen H. Cande, Maria Tavaszi, Leslie C. Stewart-Abernathy, Barbara Ruff, and Donald R. Montgomery. 2002. The Archeological Investigation of the Block Detached Kitchen: The 1982 and 1983 Arkansas Archeological Society Digs, Old Washington Historic State Park. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 02-01. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 88 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: The Arkansas Archeological Survey conducted excavations at the former site of the Block detached kitchen (3HE0236-19) in Old Washington Historic State Park. The purpose of the work was to assist in the historically accurate reconstruction of the outbuilding. The excavations uncovered 17 features. Eight of the features and three large pier rocks partially defined the kitchen foot print.

AMASDA Number: 4595 Guendling, Randall L., Mary L. Kwas, Jamie C. Brandon, and Kathleen H. and Cande. 1999. Archeological Investigations at Old Washington Historic State Park, Arkansas: The 1836 Courthouse Block (3HE236-0) and The Block-Catts House Block (3HE236-19). AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 99-02. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 92 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: Archeological investigations of the 1836 courthouse square (3HE0236-0), Block 0, at Old Washington Historic State Park were undertaken by the Arkansas Archeological Survey. The goals of the excavations was to locate, excavate, and evaluate the original site of the 1839 Clerk's Office and to examine a corridor for a new septic system to be placed in association with a planned public restroom to be reconstructed and interpreted as the Clerk's Office. The excavations uncovered two possible 19th century wells, deep fill deposit, and a substantial chimney base belonging to an unknown building. AMASDA Number: 4176.

Hilliard, Jerry E. 1998. Historical and Archeological Account of the Anderson Slave Cemetery (3BE625), Benton County, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 98-CO-19. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 33 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: An unmarked slave cemetery (3BE0625) was reported to be located somewhere on a 30 acre tract recently acquired by the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority. Mechanical stripping of topsoil identified three features interpreted as infant or sub-adult grave pits. No further investigations were conducted in Area B because the goal of identifying the cemetery area had been met. Various other antebellum features of the Anderson farm were also identified. The slave dwellings and the burying ground were south of a road, and the cemetery is 400 m south of the Anderson family cemetery. Other historical accounts and archival data studies provide details on the antebellum landscape. AMASDA Number: 3950.

Jeter, Marvin D., Jerome C. Rose, G. Ishmael Williams, Jr., and Anna M. Harmon. 1989. Archeology and Bioarcheology of the Lower Mississippi Valley and Trans-Mississippi South in Arkansas and Louisiana. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, no. 37. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. Abstract: This volume is the sixth and final regional cultural resource overview prepared by the Arkansas Archeological Survey for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern Division. In the opening chapters of the volume, previous archeological investigations are reviewed in detail, and the history of cultural resource management in the area is summarized. The overview then unfolds the area's archeological past in its entirety, from prehistoric, through protohistoric, to historic. The latter period is discussed not only in terms of Native Americans, but of Euroamericans, African-Americans, and Asian Americans as well. The bioarcheology of the Louisiana-Arkansas is analyzed in later chapters; numerous tables and appendices contain pertinent analyses of data from Native American burials. Areas where further research is needed are clearly delineated. A final chapter synthesizes the archeological and bioarcheological evidence in adaptive terms.

Klinger, Timothy C., and Don R. Dickson. 2000. Countryside Addition Abandoned Cemetery. Report 00-11. Fayetteville, AR: Historic Preservation Associates. 25 pages. Abstract: The Crestwood Company was required to remove and relocate the graves from the abandoned African American cemetery, of the Countryside Addition to the City of North Little Rock. A systematic surface review and metal detector survey of the cemetery was documented 96 distinct burials. AMASDA Number: 4419.

Kwas, Mary L. 2005. Digging for History at Old Washington. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 04-01: ANCRC project 04-009. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 63 pages plus appendix. Abstract: The antebellum town of Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas has been preserved as a state park since 1973. Archeological research that began in 1980 has assisted the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism in the architectural restoration and interpretation of the park. This report summarizes the previous archeological work and new research on the Block and Sanders families. AMASDA Number: 5087.

Lafferty, Robert H., III, Carol S. Spears, and Carol Ann Johnson. 2005. Archeological Investigations at the Wolf House Site (3BA368) Volume I. MCRA Report 2001-2. Lowell, AR: Mid-Continental Research Associates. 192 pages. Abstract: Archeological exploratory testing of the Wolf House in Baxter County, Arkansas was carried out in May of 2000 by Mid-Continental Research Associates, Inc. And Spears Professional Environmental & Archeological Research Service, Inc. The survey found evidence of several structures, including the detached kitchen that likely had a root cellar. The size distribution of the cut nails suggests that the addition, the kitchen, the cook's cabin, and the slave quarters were of log construction. Analysis of the artifact distributions and photographs describe the changing use of the yards around the house during the 19th and 20th century. Recommendations are made for the preservation of the deposits until future archeological investigations are conducted. AMASDA Number: 4281.

Lafferty, Robert H., III, Robert F Cande, and John Arnold. 1997. Archeological Investigations at Waxhaws, Home of Archibald Yell. MCRA Report 97-4. Springdale, AR: Mid-Continental Research Associates. 87 pages. Abstract: This mitigation project was conducted where the Fayetteville Senior Activites Center is planned in Washington County. Field work consisted of shovel tests, control columns, and test units. The sheet midden consisted of late nineteenth and twentieth century materials, with very little which could be attributed to the time of Yell's occupation. The reported cemetery may be under a recent house southeast of Waxhaws. Monitoring of the trail and construction areas is recommended. AMASDA Number: 3852.

Rose, Jerome C., editor. 1985. Gone to a Better Land: A Biohistory of a Rural Black Cemetery in the Post-Reconstruction South. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, 25. W. Frederick Limp, ed. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. Abstract: Excavations carried out in 1982 at the Cedar Grove site (3LA0097) recovered and relocated 79 graves from an historic Black cemetery threatened by revetment work on the Red River. Artifact and skeletal data were recorded in the field before reburial on a new cemetery. All graves dated to the period 1890 to 1927. Preliminary analysis suggests differential mortuary treatment by age and possibly economic resources. Analysis of skeletal demographics indicates a highly stressed but normal biological population. Skeletal data indicates high frequencies of anemia, rickets, scurvy, and protein malnutrition. Weanling diarrhea is indicated by high frequencies of systemic periostosis, active cribra orbitalia, and a modal childhood age at death of 18 months. High frequencies of degenerative joint disease on the adult skeletons suggests a hard rigorous life style. Comparison of these data to the historical record reveals that the diet, health, and general quality of life for southwest Arkansas Blacks had deteriorated significantly since emancipation due to the fall in cotton prices and legalized discrimination.

Rose, Jerome C., editor. 1983. Cedar Grove Historic Cemetery: A Study in Biohistory. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 528. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 588 pages. Abstract: Excavations carried out in 1982 at the Cedar Grove site (3LA0097) by the Arkansas Archeological Survey for the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, recovered and relocated 80 graves from an historic Black cemetery threatened by revetment work on the Red River. Analysis of artifacts dated all graves to the period 1890 to 1927, when the cemetery was covered by silt from a major flood of the Red River. Preliminary analysis of the casket hardware and personal grave goods suggests differential mortuary treatment by age and possibly economic resources. Skeletal demographics showed the reconstructed age/sex profile represented a highly stressed but normal biological population. Preliminary analysis of the skeletal data indicates high frequencies of anemia, rickets, scurvy, and protein malnutrition. The presence of weaning diarrhea is indicated by high frequencies of systemic periostosis, active cribra orbitalia, and a modal childhood age at death of 18 months. High frequencies of degenerative joint disease on the adult skeletons suggests a hard physical labor required of Blacks had not changed since slavery. Comparison of these data to the historical record reveals that the diet, health, and general quality of life for southwest Arkansas Blacks had deteriorated significantly since emancipation due to the fall in cotton prices and legalized discrimination. AMASDA Number: 1303.

Salwen, Bert, and Geoffrey M. Gyrisco. 1977. Archeology of Black American Culture: An Annotated Bibliography. 4 Pages. Interagency Archeological Services. Abstract: With the growing interest in Black history has come an increasing awareness that the traditional written records offer little about the past of the American Blacks. Because of this, over the past decade the use of archeology has become a valuable technique for providing information about the Black history and culture. To aid future researchers in building on widely scattered earlier works the IAS staff compiled this annotated bibliography which is extensive but not comprehensive.

Santeford, Lawrence G., and Carol S. Spears. 1994. 3JE357: A 19th Century Site in Jefferson County, Arkansas. SPEARS Project Report 83. West Fork, AR: Spears Professional Environmental and Archeological Research Service. 165 pages, plus appendices. Abstract: Site 3JE0357 was tested to determine its significance and eligibility for nomination to the National Register. Fourteen units were excavated and archival investigations accomplished. Analysis of these data strongly suggests there was a structure in the area occupied by a slave of Albert Verdu (ca. 1840s -1850s), or slaves of Senator Robert Wood Johnson (ca. 1855- 1860s). The ceramics found are those found elsewhere in the southeast at slave cabins. Animal bone, primarily hog and cow are all associated with parts of the animal with little meat. Despite a limited view on antebellum occupation, this work provides an excellent basis for expanding research into antebellum economics, but all features have been excavated and there is little archeological potential remaining. Monitoring of the site during road construction is suggested. AMASDA Number: 3185.

Stewart, Jack H. 1993. Cultural Resources Survey of the Proposed Huckleberry Creek Impoundement [Sic] Project, Pope County, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 855. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 38 pages, plus appendix. Abstract: An intensive survey was conducted of 820 acres proposed for a reservoir, dam, spillway, intake inlet bay, and three miles of water transmission lines. Thirteen archeological sites were recorded. Of these, eight were historic house places, one historic cemetery, and three prehistoric lithic scatters. Recommendations are made for testing at 3PP0390, an early twentieth-century house site with out buildings; testing should also be done on a rumored slave cemetery. Site 3PP0391, the known historic cemetery, should be avoided from any impact. AMASDA Number: 2369.

Stewart-Abernathy, Leslie C. 1993. Separate Kitchens and Intimate Archeology: Constructing Urban Slavery on the Antebellum Cotton Frontier in Washington, Arkansas. 16 pages + tables presented at the Arkansas Historical Association, Annual Meeting, Fort Smith, Arkansas, April. Abstract: Historical archeological investigation of separate kitchen buildings behind houses in Washington, Arkansas, produced interpretive insights on the construction of landscapes of interaction and control. Kitchens provided both quarters and workspace for African-Americans who were slave servants to the Anglo-American families whose commercial and political ventures supported a newly developing region of cotton planters. The intimate and reflexive interaction of slaves and owners in household daily life erased the social and architectural separation between kitchen and main house, and insured ambiguities and syncretism in the habitus built on the Cotton Frontier in the two generations after 1820.

Stewart-Abernathy, Leslie C. 1981. Research Plan for the 1981 Society Training Program at the Sanders Block at Old Washington (3HE236). Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 35 pages. Abstract: This report provides a research plan for the 1981 Society Training Excavation to be conducted at the Sanders Block at Old Washington. AMASDA Number: 1095.

Stewart-Abernathy, Leslie C. 1986. The Block House Piers: A Contribution to the Archeological Underpinning of Historic Preservation in Washington, Arkansas. AAS Sponsored Research Program Project No. 575 and 627. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. 32 pages, plus addendum. Abstract: Scientific excavations of four surviving house piers at the Block-Catts house at Old Washington State Park was conducted by the Survey. Excavations exposed one L-shaped and three linear house piers, a buried topsoil horizon dating to the first decades of the house, a robber trench, and a probably prehistoric hearth. AMASDA Number: 877.

Story, Dee Ann, Janice A. Guy, Barbara A. Burnett, Martha Doty Freeman, Jerome C. Rose, D. Gentry Steele, Ben W. Olive, and Karl J. Reinhard. 1990. The Archeology and Bioarcheology of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, 2, no. 38. Mary Lynn Kennedy, ed. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. Abstract: This overview of the Gulf Coastal Plains Region, Region 2 of the Southwestern Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, takes in the western section of the Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic province, the extreme eastern edge of the Central Texas Great Plains province, a small part of the Osage Plains Central Lowlands province, and the southwest margins of the Ouachita province. The opening chapters of Volume 1 describe the environmental setting and resources of the region over the entire time span of human inhabitance and review all previous archeological research in the area. The bioarcheology of the region is then analyzed in a two-part chapter which considers eastern and western sections separately. The following chapter provides a comprehensive archeological history of Native American culture in the region. Volume 2 opens with a chapter describing the history of European and African culture in the Gulf Coastal Plain. A second two-part chapter provides a synthesis of the bioarcheology of both eastern and western portions of the Gulf Coastal Plain. The final chapter uses a number of adaptation types to integrate the archeological and bioarcheological findings and provides a means of comparing the Gulf Coastal Plain with other regions in the Southwestern Division.

Story, Dee Ann; Guy, Janice A.; Burnett, Barbara A.; Freeman, Martha Doty; Rose, Jerome C.; Steele, D. Gentry; Olive, Ben W.; Reinhard, Karl J. 1990. The Archeology and Bioarcheology of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, 1, no. 38. Mary Lynn Kennedy, ed. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey. Abstract: This overview of the Gulf Coastal Plains Region, Region 2 of the Southwestern Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, takes in the western section of the Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic province, the extreme eastern edge of the Central Texas Great Plains province, a small part of the Osage Plains Central Lowlands province, and the southwest margins of the Ouachita province. The opening chapters of Volume 1 describe the environmental setting and resources of the region over the entire time span of human inhabitance and review all previous archeological research in the area. The bioarcheology of the region is then analyzed in a two-part chapter which considers eastern and western sections separately. The following chapter provides a comprehensive archeological history of Native American culture in the region. Volume 2 opens with a chapter describing the history of European and African culture in the Gulf Coastal Plain. A second two-part chapter provides a synthesis of the bioarcheology of both eastern and western portions of the Gulf Coastal Plain. The final chapter uses a number of adaptation types to integrate the archeological and bioarcheological findings and provides a means of comparing the Gulf Coastal Plain with other regions in the Southwestern Division.

Ward, Andrew J. 2005. Health and Dietary Reconstruction: Comparing Two African-American Cemetery Sites. Thesis, Master of Arts, Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas. 70 pages. Abstract: Chemical analysis is a well accepted method for dietary reconstruction, but can chemical analysis be used to answer other questions about archaeological populations? This study examines two historic African-American cemetery populations by using stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen. Bone and hair were analyzed for their isotropic levels to reconstruct general dietary pattern and demonstrate residential stability. The control group, Cedar Grove 3LA0097, is a known rural community, and the comparative group Memphis Shelly County Airport 40SY619, is an unknown, but possibly urban-related population.



University of Kentucky
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology
Nancy O'Malley

O'Malley, Nancy. 1990. A Documentary Review of the Rose Street Extension Project Area, Lexington, Kentucky. Archaeological Report 228, Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

O'Malley, Nancy. 2002. The Pursuit of Freedom: The Evolution of Kinkeadtown, An African American Post-Civil War Neighborhood in Lexington, Kentucky. Wintherthur Portfolio 37(4): 187-218.



University of Maryland
Center for Heritage Resource Studies
Robert C. Chidester

-- Reports Focusing on African-American Sites --

Burnston, Sharon Ann. 1981. Archaeological Data Recovery at Catoctin Furnace Cemetery, Frederick County, Maryland. Report submitted to Orr and Son, Consulting Archaeologists for the Maryland Department of Transportation by Mid-Atlantic Archaeological Research, Inc. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Comer, Elizabeth Anderson. 1996. Phase I Archaeological Investigation at the Ellicott City Colored School, Ellicott City, Maryland, Howard County, Maryland. Report submitted to the Howard County Department of Recreation and Parks by EAC/Archaeology. Capital Project N-3910 AA. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Hughes, Richard B. and Susan A. Lebo. 1982. A Cultural Resources Survey of the Bainbridge Naval Training Center, Port Deposit, Maryland. Volume II: Archeological Resources. Report submitted to the Department of the Navy Atlantic Division. Maryland Historical Trust Manuscript Series #27. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Libby, Jean. 1991. African Ironmaking Culture Among African-American Ironmakers in Western Maryland, 1760-1850. Master's thesis, San Francisco State University.

Sorensen, James D. 1990. Archaeological Investigations at Rebecca Lodge No. 6 of the Benevolent Sons and Daughters of Abraham (Abraham Hall). Report submitted to Celentano-Esposito, Inc. by the Department of Anthropology, American University. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Sprinkle, John H., Jr. and Richard G. Ervin. 2001. Archeological Investigations at the Sharpe-Ridout-Boone Mill Complex, (18AN652), US 50/301 Cape St. Clair Interchange, Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Report submitted to the Maryland State Highway Administration by the Maryland Geological Survey. Contract #AAA 369-501-560. SHA Archeological Report #35. MGS Division of Archeology File Report #235. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Williams, Martha, Nora Sheehan, Suzanne Sanders, Ellen St. Onge, Katherine Child, Andrew Madsen, Charlene Keck, Justine McKnight and Brian Cleven. 2000. Phase I, II, and III Archeological Investigations at the Juvenile Justice Center, Baltimore, Maryland. Report submitted to the Maryland Department of General Services by R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

-- Reports that Cover African-American Sites Briefly --

Barse, William P. 1993. Archeological Assessment of the Pine Ridge Golf Course. Report submitted to the Baltimore Municipal Golf Corporation by KCI Technologies. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Cheek, Charles D., Amy Friedlander, Teresa E. Ossim and Cheryl A. Holt. 1984. Archaeological Testing of Six Sites in the Carroll Creek Project, Frederick Historic District, Frederick, Maryland. Report submitted to Rummer, Klepper and Kahl and the City of Frederick by Professional Service Industries, Inc., Soil Systems Division. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Child, Colby A., Jr., Geoffrey E. Melhuish, Hugh B. McAloon and Suzanne L. Sanders. 1996. Phase I Archeological Investigations of the Proposed Urbana Sewer and Water Connector, Frederick County, Maryland. Report submitted to the Monocacy Land Company, LLC by R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Ervin, Richard G. 1993. Archeological Survey within the Principio Iron Furnace National Register Historical Site. Unpublished manuscript. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Goodwin, R. Christopher, Kathryn Kuranda, Elizabeth Pena, Suzanne Sanders, Martha Williams, David Landon and Justine Woodard. 1992. Archeological and Architectural Investigations at Camden Yards, Baltimore, Maryland. Report submitted to the Maryland Stadium Authority by R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Maddex, Lee and Emory Kemp. 1998. Principio Furnace Research and Management Plan. Report submitted to the Maryland Historical Trust by the Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Orr, Kenneth G. and Ronald G. Orr. 1982. The Catoctin Furnace Archaeological Mitigation Project: Final Report of the 1979 Excavation. Report submitted to the Maryland State Highway Administration by Orr and Son, Consulting Archaeologists. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.

Payne, Ted M. and Kenneth Baumgardt. 1990. Phase I Archeological Reconnaissance Survey, Muirkirk Commuter Rail Station. Report submitted to the Maryland State Highway Administration by Mid-Atlantic Archaeological Research, Inc. Contract #SRA 4848-103. Copy available from the Maryland Historical Trust, Crownsville.



Return to Resource Links on
African-American Archaeology

Learn more about
African-American Archaeology

dividing bar

Created and maintained by
Christopher C. Fennell
Dep't of Anthropology
University of Illinois
Urbana-Champaign

Last updated:
January 12, 2009




About ADAN Web Resources Overview Research projects Newsletter Discussion groups Workshops and Forums